Role of HIV Infection in Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Parts of Benue State, Nigeria
Keywords:Bacteriophage, Isoniazid, Multi-Drug Resistance, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Rifampicin
The pathogenesis of Tuberculosis shows that M. tuberculosis target and persist within phagocytes including T-lymphocytes in blood circulation. As a result, the possibility of cellular interaction between M. tuberculosis and HIV, especially for patients that are co-infected with HIV and TB, and subsequent exchange of genetic material via transduction needs to be investigated. Three hundred and eighty sputum samples mostly from suspected rifampicin-resistance patients were collected from Nigerian Airforce (NAF) Hospital Makurdi, and Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Makurdi. In vitro culture of sputum samples, Drugs Susceptibility Testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis isolates, and transduction protocol were carried out at the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Training Centre (NTBLTC) Zaria, Nigeria. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student’s t-test. Minitab version 14.0 statistical software was used for data analysis. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Twenty-six (9.7%) cases of Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were detected (retreated cases 7.1%; treatment naive 2.6%). Twenty-one (80.8%) were males and 5(19.2%) were females. There was statistical difference in MDR-TB between male and female in Benue State (P<0.05). The mean age group 35-45 years had the highest cases of MDR-TB accounting for 35% of MDR-TB. Human-immunodeficiency virus and Tuberculosis co-infected patients (category I) had the highest MDR-TB incidence of 10(38.5%). There was no significant difference between category-1 and category-III [patient with only TB disease (P>0.05)]. However, there were elevated cases of MDR-TB in category-III patients from 7(26.9%) to 10(38.5%) following transduction protocol. Multi-drugs resistant tuberculosis is prevalent in Benue State, affecting the most economically active youths within the age group of 35-45 years, as a result the need to direct more attention on molecular basis for M. tuberculosis drugs resistance is therefore advocated, in order to win the war against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.
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