Perceived Parenting Style and Academic Performance of Grade Vi Learners in One Elementary School in Iloilo Province, Philippines


  • Shiela May Labajo Iloilo State College of Fisheries Main Campus, Tiwi, Barotac Nuevo, Iloilo, Philippines
  • Christine Mae Sebugan Batuan Elementary School, District of Carles, Division of Iloilo, Philippines



Parenting Style, Academic Performance, Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive


This study aimed to find out the influence of parenting style on the academic performance of Grade VI learners of Batuan Elementary School in the District of Carles, Division of Iloilo, Philippines. The respondents of the study were twenty-nine (29) grade six learners. A standardized Parenting Style Questionnaire developed by Robinson (2015) was used. The academic performance of Grade VI learners was gathered through DepEd Form 137-E. Statistical tools used were mean and standard deviation for descriptive and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, and spearman rho for inferential. Findings revealed that the most preferred parenting style of the mothers as perceived by the learners when taken as a whole and classified as to household size and educational attainment was “authoritative”. The academic performance of the learners exhibited an “approaching proficiency” when taken as an entire group. When grouped as to parenting style, learners whose mothers were authoritarian had exhibited a “developing” performance while those having permissive mothers exhibited “proficiency” and those having authoritative mothers exhibited an “approaching proficiency” performance. It was noted that there were no significant differences in the parenting styles preferred by mothers as perceived by the learners when they were classified as household size and educational attainment. Hence, a significant difference was noted in their academic performance when they were classified as to the parenting style and this significant difference existed between Authoritarian vs. Authoritative. And further, the results show no significant relationship between the parenting style of the mother as perceived by the learner and the learner’s academic performance.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Shiela May Labajo, Iloilo State College of Fisheries Main Campus, Tiwi, Barotac Nuevo, Iloilo, Philippines

Assistant Professor in the College of Education teaching English and Professional Education Subjects. Graduate of PhD in Education major in Educational Management at West Visayas State University, presently pursuing another PhD in Education major in Reading Education at UP Diliman.


Abesha, A. (2017). Impact of parenting practices on scholastic performance of high school students in Wolayta and Amhara Cultures. Unpublished Master's Thesis. A.A.U.

Authoritarian Parenting: An Overview - Parents - Retrieved 2007-09-23.

Baumrind, D. & Black, A.E. (2017). Socialization practices associated with dimensions of competence in preschool boys and girls. Child Development, 38, 291-327.

Baumrind, D. (2013). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Baumrind, D. (2015). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth and Society, 9, 239-276.

Baumrind, D. (2017). “Rearing competent children." In Child Development Today and Tomorrow, ed. William Damon. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Berk, S.P. (2015). Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies. Journal of Adolescence, 23 205-222.

Bhuvan, R. (2012). Permissive parenting style. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from

Bradley, S.C. & Corwyn, K. (2018). Predictors of academic performance of pupils. Journal of Child Psychology, 22, 88-90.

Camino, R.F. (2017). Influence of parenting styles on junior secondary school students’ performance in social studies. Modern Teacher, XV, 45-49.

Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2015). The Hungry Mind: Intellectual Curiosity Is the Third Pillar of Academic Performance. Perspective on Psychological Science 6 (6), 574–588. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from

Chen, L., Liu, S., & Li, K. (2018). Parenting styles as predictor of emotional adjustment and academic achievement. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Chua, A. (2011). Why Chinese mothers are superior. Retrieved June 28, 2012 from

Clark, R. (2015). Family life and school achievement: Why poor Black children succeed of fail. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., & Roberts, D. F. (2017). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244-1257.

Encyclopedia of Education (2012).

Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (2015)

English Oxford Living Dictionaries (2019)

Hart, C. H., Nelson, D.A., Robinson, C. D., Olsen, S. F., & McNeilly-Choque, M. K. (2018). Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: Parenting style and marital linkages. Developmental Psychology, 34, 687-697.

Hess, R.D., & Holloway, S.D. (2014). Family and school as educational institutions. In R.D. Parke (Ed.), Review of Child Development Research (vol.7, pp. 179 -222). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hill, N. E. (2015). The relationship between family environment and parenting style: A preliminary study of African American families. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 408-423.

Houston Chronicle Journal (2019)

How to measure academic performance |

Keshavarz, S. & Baharudin, R. (2010). Parenting style in a collectivist culture of Malaysia. University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Kim, M. & Rohner, C. (2015). The influence of parenting styles on the academic achievement. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Lamborn, S.D., Mounts, N.S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S.M. (2015). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 62, 1049-1065.

Lareau, A. (2019). Home advantage: social class and parental intervention in elementary education. New York: Falmer Press.

Leung, P. W. L., & Kwan, K. S. F. (2018). Parenting styles, motivational orientations, and self-perceived academic competence: A mediational model. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 44, 1-19.

Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (2015). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

Maccoby, E.E. (2012). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006-1017.

Markos, T. (2016). The relationship between parenting style and school performance among high school students in Makalle. Unpublished Masters Thesis, A.A.U.

Morrow, W., & Wilson, R.C. (2011). Family relations of bright high-achieving and underachieving high school boys. Child Development, 32, 501-510.

Muñoz, F.T. (2017). Parents’ parenting style: A case study on selected elementary schools in Biñan, Laguna. Modern Teacher, XVII, 89-90.

Nicassio, F.J. (2019). Parent-Child communication during a home instructional task. Journal of Educational Research, 76, 335-342.

Park, P. & Bauer, F. (2018). Relationship between parenting styles and high school student’s academic performance. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Powers, T.G. (2016). Poverty’s effect on childhood academic performance. Journal of Human Behavior, 5 (1), 52-55.

Quing, Z. (2016). Relationship of Chinese parenting style to children’s academic achievement. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Radziszewska, B., Richardson, J. L., Dent, C. W., & Flay, B. R. (2016). Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: Ethnic, gender, and S.E.S. differences. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19(3), 289-305.

Robinson, C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (2015). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77, 819-830.

Rodriquez, C.U. (2019). The influence of parenting style on the academic performance of students: A case study of some selected secondary schools. Master’s Thesis, University of Mindanao, Davao City.

Roopnarine, Y., Krishnakumar, P., Metindogan, C. & Evans, N. (2010). Maternal and paternal parenting style in relation to pre-kindergarten and kindergarten-age children's academic skills. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Schaefer, B. A., & McDermott, P. A. (2017). "Learning behavior and intelligence as explanations for children's scholastic achievement." Journal of School Psychology 37 (3):299–313.

Seyed, M. A, Navereh, Z., Hossein, K., Mohammad, R.M., Padiden, g. Mahmood, R.G. (2017). The relationship between maternal pareting styles, sociocultural context, and scholastic achievement of Iranian adolescents. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Shumow, L., Vandell, D. L., & Posner, J. K. (2008). Harsh, firm, and permissive parenting in low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 438-507.

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S.D. Dornbusch, S.M., & Darling N. (2019). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281.

Then, J. (2011). Three basic parenting styles. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from =744499.

Torres-Villa, O. (2018). Parenting style as predictors of school achievement of high school students. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from

Walker, J.M. & Rekar, C.S. (2016). Influence on child’s educational aspirations and attainment. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from

Warash, B. (2017). Are middle class parents authoritative with a touch of permissiveness?. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 74, 28-31.

Weiss, L. H., & Schwarz, J. C. (2016). The relationship between parenting types and older adolescents’ personality, academic achievement, adjustment, and substance use. Child Development, 67(5), 2101-2114.




How to Cite

Labajo, S. M., & Sebugan, C. M. . (2022). Perceived Parenting Style and Academic Performance of Grade Vi Learners in One Elementary School in Iloilo Province, Philippines. American Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation, 1(2), 22–29.