Cancer Genetic Markers Among School Children in Relation to Urogenital Schistosomiasis


  • Chinweike-Umeh S.N Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Ekwunife C.A Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Onwuachusi G.L Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria


Bladder Cancer, Genetic Markers, Urogenital, Schistosoma Haematobium


Chronic infection with urogenital schistosomiasis can lead to severe complications such as bladder cancer. Hence, this study determined the presence of Cancer Genetic Markers among School Children in relation to Urogenital Schistosomiasis. All 36 S. haematobium positive cases from an earlier study and randomly selected 156 negative samples were used. Immunogens tested for, included glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3). Mean optical density (OD) was 0.73 and 0.79 for GAPDH and FGFR3 respectively. A total of 21 (10.94%) participants, 16 females and 5 males were positive for GAPDH marker. Fifty (26.04%) participants were positive for FGFR3 via ELISA cutoff. Mean OD for S. haematobium positive individuals tested for GAPDH was 0.938, minimum value was 0.119 while maximum value was 4.507. For FGFR3 mean OD was 0.896, Maximum 2.882 and minimum 0.28, while females showed higher GAPDH OD. More females than males who were positive for S. haematobium were also positive for GAPDH (11.1%) and FGFR3 (25%). FGFR3 and GAPDH marker prevalence for Individuals Positive for S. haematobium is 25% and 16.7% respectively. The age group 11-15 years were the only group positive for GAPDH. There was a slight positive correlation between age and FGFR3 and age and GAPDH. The presence of these markers is an indicator that the children in the selected communities maybe at risk of developing bladder cancer in the future if the disease is not properly managed and controlled.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, F., Mahal, V., Verma, G., Bhatia, S., and Das, B.R. (2018). Molecular Investigation of FGFR3 Gene Mutation and Its Correlation with Clinicopathological Findings in Indian Bladder Cancer Patients. Cancer Reports, 1(3), e1130.

Akanksha, M., and Sandhya, S. (2019). Role of FGFR3 in Urothelial Carcinoma. Iranian Journal of Pathology, 14, 148–155.

Altenberg, B., and Greulich, K.O. (2004). Genes of glycolysis are ubiquitously overexpressed in 24 cancer classes. Genomics, 84, 1014-1020.

Barosum, R.S. (2021). The Kidney in Schistosomiasis: Chapter 56. Retrieved on May 01, 2021.

Beukers, W., van der Keur, K.A., Kandimalla, R.,Vergouwe, Y., Steyerberg, E.W., Boormans, J.L., Jensen, J.B.Lorente, J.A., Real, F.X., Segersten, U., Orntoft, T.F., Malats, N., Malmström, P-U., Dyrskjot L. and Zwarthoff, E.C. (2017). FGFR3, TERT and OTX1 as a Urinary Biomarker Combination for Surveillance of Patients With Bladder Cancer in A Large Prospective Multicenter Study. Journal of Urology, 197(6),1410- 1418.

Brooks, G.F., Carroll, K.C., Butel, J.S., Morse, S.A., Mietzner. T.A., (2010). Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology (25th edition). McGraw Hill, New York.

Bundy, D.A.P., Walson, J.L. and Watkins, K.L. (2013). Worms, Wisdom, and Wealth: Why Deworming can make Economic Sense. Trends in Parasitolology, 29, 142-148.

Cheesbrough M. (2009). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, part 1. 2nd edn Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Colell A., Green D.R. and Ricci J.E. (2009). Novel roles for GAPDH in cell death and carcinogenesis. Cell Death Differ, 16, 1573-1581.

Critelli R, Fasanelli F, Oderda M, Polidoro S, Assumma MB, Viberti C, Preto M, Gontero P, Cucchiarale G, Lurkin I, Zwarthoff EC, Vineis P, Sacerdote C, Matullo G, and Naccarati A. (2016). Detection of multiple mutations in urinary exfoliated cells from male bladder cancer patients at diagnosis and during follow-up. Oncotarget, 7(41), 67435–67448.

Crompton, D.W.T. and Nesheim, M.C. (2002). Nutritional Impact of Intestinal Helminthiasis during the Human Life Cycle. Annual Review of Nutrition, 22, 35-59.

Ekwunife, C.A., Okafor, F.C. and Nwaorgu, O.C. (2009). Ultrasonographic screening of urinary Schistosomiasis infected patients in Agulu community, Anambra state, southeast Nigeria. International Archives of Medicine, 2, 34.

Ekwunife, C.A., Ukaga, C.N. and Okafor, F. (2004). Urinary Schistosomiasis in Anambra State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 25(1), 127-131.

Frantzi, M., Makridakis, M. and Vlahou, A. (2012). Biomarkers for bladder cancer aggressiveness. Current Opinion Urology, 22(5), 390–396.

Gea-Sorlí, S. and Closa, D. (2009). In vitro, but not in vivo, reversibility of peritoneal macrophages activation during experimental acute pancreatitis. BMC Immunology, 10, 42.

Groeneveld, A.E., Marszalek, W.W. and Heyns, C.F. (1996). Bladder cancer in various population groups in the greater Durban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. British Journal of Urology, 78, 205–208.

Guo C., Liu S. and Sun M-Z (2013). Novel Insight into the Role of GAPDH Playing in Tumor. Clinical and Translational Oncology, 15(3), 167-72.

Hokke, C.H. and Yazdanbakhsh,M., (2005).Schistosome Glycans and Innate Immunity. Parasite Immunology, 27, 257–264.

IARC (2012). Biological agents. Volume 100 B. A review of human carcinogens. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans/World Health Organization. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 100, 1–441.

Ishida, K. and Hsieh, M.H. (2018). Understanding urogenital Schistosomiasis-Related Bladder Cancer: An Update.

Kamat, A.M., Hegarty, P.K., Gee, J.R., Clark, P.E., Svatek, R.S., Hegarty, N., Shariat, S.F., Xylinas, E., Schmitz-Dräger, B.J., Lotan, Y., Jenkins, L.C., Droller, M., van Rhijn, B.W. and Karakiewicz, P.I. (2013) ICUD–EAU international consultation on bladder cancer 2012: screening, diagnosis, and molecular markers. Eur Urol, 63, 4–15.

Klion, A.D. and Nutman, T.B. (2002). Immunity to Parasitic Worms. Encyclopedia of Life Science: MacMillian Publishers Limited.

Mickum, M.L., Prasanphanich, N.S., Heimburg-Molinaro, J., Leon, K.E. and Cummings, R.D. (2014). Deciphering the Glycogenome of Schistosomes. Frontiers in Genetics, 5(262), 1-15.

MICTU/UNIZIK (2019). Centre for Community and Rural Development: Anambra North Senatorial District. Retrived on April 14, 2019.

Miguel, E. and Kremer, M. (2004). Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities. Econometrica, 72, 159-217.

Ndukwe, Y.E., Obiezue, R.N.N., Aguzie, I.O.N., Anunobi, J.T. and Okafor, F.C. (2019). Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Anambra State, Nigeria. Annals of Global Health, 85(1), 1–10.

Park, H., Li, Z., Yang, X.O., Chang, S.H., Nurieva, R., Wang, Y.H., Wang, Y., Hood, L., Zhu, Z., Tian, Q. and Dong, C. (2005). A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17. Nature Immunology, 6, 1133-1141.

Pirovich, D.B., Da’dara, A.A. and Skelly, P.J. (2020). Schistosoma mansoni glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enhances formation of the blood-clot lysis protein plasmin. Biology Open, 9.

Saini, A., Kumar, M., Bhatt, S., Saini, V. and Malik, A. (2020). Cancer Causes and Treatment. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 11(7), 3121-3134.

Shariat S.F., Sfakianos J.P., Droller M.J.,Karakiewicz P.I.,Meryn S., and Bochner B.H. (2019). The effect of age and gender on bladder cancer: a critical review of the literature. BJU International, 105(3), 300–308.

Siegel, R.L., Miller, K.D. and Jemal, A. (2015). Cancer Statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. American Cancer Society, 65(1), 5-29.

Soria, F., Krabbe, L-M., Todenhöfer, T., Dobruch, J., Mitra, A.P., Inman, B.A., Gust, K.M., Lotan, Y. and Shariat, S.F. (2019). Molecular markers in bladder cancer. World Journal of Urology, 37, 31–40.

teVelde, A.A., Huijbens, R.J., Heije, K., de Vries, J.E. and Figdor, C.G. (1990). Interleukin-4 (IL-4) inhibits secretion of IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6 by human monocytes. Blood, 76, 1392-1397.

Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (2010). ELISA technical guide and protocols.

Thomas, P.G. and Harn, D.A. (2004). Immune Biasingby Helminth Glycans. Cellular Microbiology, 6, 13–22.

Van Die, I. and Cummings, R.D. (2006). Glycans Modulate Immune Responses in Helminth Infections and Allergy. Chemical Immunology and Allergy, 90, 91–112.

Waknine-Grinberg, J.H., Gold, D., Ohayon, A., Flescher, E., Heyfets, A., Doenhoff, M.J., Schramm, G., Haas, H. and Golenser, J. (2010). Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces the incidence of murine cerebral malaria. Malaria Journal, 9, 5.

Zhang X and Zhang Y (2015). Bladder Cancer and Genetic Mutations. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysis 73, 65–69.

Zhang, J-Y., Zhang, F., Hong, C-Q., Giuliano, A.E., Cui, X-J., Zhou, G-J., Zhang, G-J. and Cui, Y-K. (2015). Critical protein GAPDH and its regulatory mechanisms in cancer cells. Cancer Biology and Medicine, 12, 10-22.




How to Cite

Chinweike-Umeh, S. N., Ekwunife, C. A., & Onwuachusi, G. L. (2023). Cancer Genetic Markers Among School Children in Relation to Urogenital Schistosomiasis. American Journal of Medical Science and Innovation, 2(1), 32–38. Retrieved from