Perception and Valuation of Men and Children on Women Unpaid Carework in Nabdam: An Analysis


  • Ernest Owusu Department of Religious Studies, Alpha University College, Kumasi, Ghana
  • Rebecca Ama Koramah Kumi Department of Religious Studies, Alpha University College, Kumasi, Ghana
  • Baffour Owusu-Boateng UNICEF, Ghana
  • Sandra Attitsogbui University of Lincoln, UK
  • Anita Owusu Gyamea Department of English, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana



Unpaid Care work, Valuation, Perception


Women’s unpaid care work continues to be a major setback to the socio-economic development of women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, this study sought to examine the Perception and valuation of men and children on women’s Unpaid care work in Nabdam. The study adopted a quantitative research approach, and two hundred and sixty-nine (269) men and children were selected randomly from four communities, namely Palegu, Tindongo, Sakote, and Zeringu, in the Nabdam district of the Upper East region of Ghana. Self-prepared questionnaires, which were structured in both close-ended and open-ended format, were used to collect the data. The study then adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey as the main research design. The study found that most men and children agreed that women should be paid for their unpaid care work. The study also found that most of the men who indicated women should not be paid for the unpaid care work they performed primarily indicated that it was their basic responsibilities as wives. Finally, the study also found out that most respondents valued the women’s unpaid care works to be $39.22 or less per month, which ironically was higher than what the women valued their unpaid care works according to earlier studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Antonopoulos, R. (2008). The unpaid care work-paid work connection. Levy Economics Institute, Working Papers Series.

Benería, L., Berik, G., & Floro, M. (2015). Gender, development and globalization: Economics as if all people mattered. Routledge.

Berniell, M., I. & Sánchez-Páramo, C. (2011). “Overview of Time-use data Used for the Analysis of Gender Differences in Time Use Patterns”. Background paper for the WDR 2012.

Blackden, C. M. & Wodon, Q. (2006). Gender, Time Use, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper No. 73. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.

Ilibezova, L., et al. (2013) “Gender norms and practices in the questions of maternal health, reproductive health, family planning, fatherhood and domestic violence”. UNFPA, 2013.

Jütting, J., P. Morrisson, C., Dayton-Johnson J., & Drechsler, D. (2008). Measuring Gender (In)Equality: The OECD Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 9(1), 65-86.

Kumi, R. A. K., & Owusu, E. (2023). Monetary valuation of the unpaid care works and experiences of some women in the Upper East region of Ghana. American Journal of Economics and Business Innovation, 2(1), 52–62.

Levtov, R., van der Gaag. N., Greene, M., Kaufman, M, & Barker, G. (2015). State of the World’s Fathers: A MenCare Advocacy Publication. Washington, DC: Promundo, Rutgers, Save the Children, Sonke Gender Justice, and the Men Engagement Alliance.

Lyonette, C., & Crompton, R. (2015). Sharing the load? Partners’ relative earnings and the division of domestic labour. Work, Employment and Society, 29(1), 23-40.

Razavi, S. (2007). “The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context”, Conceptual Issues. Research Questions and Policy Options, Gender and Development Program. Paper N. 3, UNSRID, Geneva.

Rizavi, S. S. & Sofer, C. (2010). “Household Division of Labour: Is There Any Escape from Traditional Gender Roles?. Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques, L’Atelier Paris1-Le Caire, Cairo.

Thorpe, J., M. & Kidder, T. (2016). Market systems approaches to enabling women’s economic empowerment through addressing unpaid care work. Conceptual Framework. DFID, BEAM Exchange: London.

UNECE (2019). UNECE Statistical Database, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, WorkAndeconomyUNECE. Statistical Division Database.

UNFPA. (2015). Preventing Gender-Biased Sex Selection in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Issue brief 4. 2015.

Woetzel, J. (2015). The Power of Parity: How Advancing Women’s Equality Can Add $12 trillion to Global Growth. Working Papers id: 7570.

Zachorowska-Mazurkiewicz, A. (2016). Gender, unpaid labour and economics.




How to Cite

Owusu, E., Koramah Kumi, R. A., Boateng, B. O., Attitsogbui, S., & Gyamea, A. O. (2024). Perception and Valuation of Men and Children on Women Unpaid Carework in Nabdam: An Analysis. American Journal of Economics and Business Innovation, 3(1), 110–117.