Leadership Dynamics in Organizational Change: An In-Depth Exploration of Public and Private Sectors in Saudi Arabia


  • Anas Abdullah Alfozan Endowment Assets and Services Centers Network, Saudi Arabia




Organisational Change, Saudia Arabia, Organisational Change Efforts, Thematic Analysis


The study explores leadership dynamics in Saudia Arabia that have evolved organisational change focusing on public and private sectors. It examined strategies used by private firms focused on innovation and employee engagement and the bureaucratic challenges public firms face. The study has adopted qualitative analysis in which several interviews were conducted through thematic analysis. The study has also applied quantitative analysis, revealing varied perceptions of organizational change among 38 participants, with the private sector being more open, effective communication moderate, and leadership styles influencing success. The analysis has explored discussing the organizational change in Saudia Arabia. The findings explored a divergence in the organizational change strategies of private and public organizations in Saudia Arabia. Motivated by innovation and employee involvement, private enterprises differ from public organisations in terms of the bureaucratic challenges they face. Leadership has a crucial part in achieving great outcomes when leaders effectively engage in mediation, dispute resolution, and emotional management of their staff. Additionally, it was discovered that leaders played an active role in effectively managing time, fostering discipline, and highlighting employee dedication, all of which contributed to the successful implementation of organizational transformation initiatives.


Download data is not yet available.


Abaker, M.-O. S. M., Al-Titi, O. A. K., & Al-Nasr, N. S. (2019). Organizational policies and diversity management in Saudi Arabia. Employee Relations: The International Journal, 41(3), 454-474.

Abdullah Alshammari, S., Rehman, A. U., Abdullah Alreshoodi, S., & Abdul Rab, M. (2023). How entrepreneurial competencies influence the leadership style: A study of Saudi female entrepreneurs. Cogent Business & Management, 10(2), 2202025.

Ahakwa, I., Yang, J., Tackie, E. A., & Atingabili, S. (2021). The influence of employee engagement, work environment and job satisfaction on organizational commitment and performance of employees: a sampling weights in PLS path modelling. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 4(3), 34-62.

Akinwale, Y. O., Alaraifi, A. A., & Ababtain, A. K. (2020). Entrepreneurship, innovation, and economic growth: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. Eurasian Economic Perspectives: Proceedings of the 28th Eurasia Business and Economics Society Conference,

Al-Kahtani, N., Alrawiai, S., Al-Zahrani, B. M., Abumadini, R. A., Aljaffary, A., Hariri, B., Alissa, K., Alakrawi, Z., & Alumran, A. (2022). Digital health transformation in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional analysis using Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society’digital health indicators. Digital Health, 8, 20552076221117742.

Al Jabri, A., Mahyoub, M. M., & Aljounaidi, A. (2021). The impact of transformational leadership on employees performance among employees in IWPPS, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Contemporary Management and Information Technology (IJCMIT), 2(1), 44-51.

Aladwan, S. A., AL-Yakoub, T. A., & Adaileh, A. M. (2022). Challenges of knowledge management in the public sector: evidence from the King Abdullah Award for Excellence in Jordan. The TQM Journal, 34(6), 1896-1913.

Alfaifi, S., Bridges, S., & Arakawa, N. (2022). Developing pharmacists’ competencies in Saudi Arabia: A proposed national competency framework to support initial education and professional development. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 14(10), 1256-1268.

Alferaih, A. (2021). How does emotional intelligence improve employee satisfaction and performance with mediating effect of employee engagement? Perspective from Saudi Arabian private companies. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 8(8), 79-93.

Alharbi, A. S. (2019a). Assessment of organizational digital transformation in Saudi Arabia. 2019 6th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom),

Alharbi, A. S. (2019b). Challenges in digital transformation in Saudi Arabia obstacles in paradigm shift in Saudi Arabia. 2019 6th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom),

Alhashedi, A. A. A., Bardai, B., Al-Dubai, M. M. M., & Alaghbari, M. A. (2021). Organizational citizenship behavior role in mediating the effect of transformational leadership on organizational performance in gold industry of Saudi Arabia. Business: Theory and Practice, 22(1), 39-54.

Alhshedi, A., Bardai, B., & Al-Dubai, M. (2020). The effect of transformational leadership behavior on organizational performance in gold industry of Saudi Arabia. Journal of process management and new technologies, 8(3).

Alshammari, F., Pasay-An, E., Gonzales, F., & Torres, S. (2020). Emotional intelligence and authentic leadership among Saudi nursing leaders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(6), 503-509.

Alsubhi, A. A., Hoque, K. E., & Razak, A. Z. A. (2020). Socio-economic impacts of women’s empowerment in higher education and the necessity of structural reformation in saudi arabia. International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(7).

Altheeb, S. A. (2020). Leadership Style and Employee Motivation: A Study of Saudi Arabian Work Environment. Journal of Educational Psychology-Propositos y Representaciones, 8.

Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. A. (2010). Beyond change management: How to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership (Vol. 36). John Wiley & Sons.

Ariussanto, K. A. P., Tarigan, Z. J. H., MM, D., br Sitepu, R., & Singh, D. S. K. (2020). Leadership style, employee engagement, and work environment to employee performance in manufacturing companies EDP Sciences].

Banee, R. R. (2022). Examining The Association Between Transformational Leadership and Public Organizational Performance Virginia Tech].

Basahel, A. M. (2021). Safety leadership, safety attitudes, safety knowledge and motivation toward safety-related behaviors in electrical substation construction projects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8), 4196.

Charan, R., Bossidy, L., Charan, R., & Lloyd, J. B. (2002). Execution. Penguin Random House Audio Publishing Group.

Dasan, R. A. (2022). Driving Strategy Implementation to Success. Global Journal of Economics & Business, 12(1).

Doolin, B. (2003). Narratives of change: Discourse, technology and organization. Organization, 10(4), 751-770.

Dukhaykh, S. (2021). Personality Traits Affecting Opinion Leadership Propensity in Social Media: An Empirical Examination in Saudi Arabia. Information 2021, 12, 323. In: s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published ….

Elqassaby, H. (2018). The Effect of Ethical Leadership on Employee Creativity. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 07, , 1-13.

Fernandes, J. L., Corrêa, S., Bezerra, P., & Matsumoto, A. S. (2015). Organizational Climate: A Comparative Study Among Public and Private Entities. Available at SSRN 2672303.

Fuller, J. B., Morrison, R., Jones, L., Bridger, D., & Brown, V. (1999). The effects of psychological empowerment on transformational leadership and job satisfaction. The journal of social psychology, 139(3), 389-391.

Gadekar, R., Sarkar, B., & Gadekar, A. (2022). Investigating the relationship among Industry 4.0 drivers, adoption, risks reduction, and sustainable organizational performance in manufacturing industries: An empirical study. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 31, 670-692.

Gharamah, A., Noordin, M., Ali, N. I., & Brohi, I. A. (2018). Knowledge management practice in private sector: Building the way for saudi arabia strategic growth and transformation to knowledge-based economy. Int. J. Eng. Technol, 7(2), 69.

Goff, D. G. (2003). What Do We Know about Good Community College Leaders: A Study in Leadership Trait Theory and Behavioral Leadership Theory.

Hogan, R., Kaiser, R. B., Sherman, R. A., & Harms, P. D. (2021). Twenty years on the dark side: Six lessons about bad leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 73(3), 199.

Hu, J., He, W., & Zhou, K. (2020). The mind, the heart, and the leader in times of crisis: How and when COVID-19-triggered mortality salience relates to state anxiety, job engagement, and prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(11), 1218.

Huynh, T. N., & Hua, N. T. A. (2020). The relationship between task-oriented leadership style, psychological capital, job satisfaction and organizational commitment: evidence from Vietnamese small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 17(4), 583-604.

Islam, M. S., Rahman, M., & Siddiqui, K. (2018). Leadership styles navigate employee job performance. The Comilla University Journal of Business Studies, 5(1).

Jomah, N. A. B. (2022). Dimensions of the Learning University in Confronting COVID-19 Pandemic Challenges: A Field Study in Saudi Public Universities from a Leadership Perspectives. International Education Studies, 15(3), 107-121.

Kassotaki, O. (2016). Explaining ambidextrous leadership in high technology organizations. Academy of Management Proceedings,

Katzir, S., & Perry-Hazan, L. (2023). Discourse, legitimacy, and bottom-to-bottom change: Haredi activism to promote secular education in New-York Hasidic schools. Journal of Education Policy, 38(1), 141-165.

Kuldosheva, G. (2021). Challenges and opportunities of digital transformation in the public sector in transition economies: Examination of the case of Uzbekistan.

London, M., Volmer, J., Zyberaj, J., & Kluger, A. N. (2023). Gaining feedback acceptance: Leader-member attachment style and psychological safety. Human Resource Management Review, 33(2), 100953.

López-Cabarcos, M. Á., Vázquez-Rodríguez, P., & QuinoA-Pineiro, L. M. (2022). An approach to employees’ job performance through work environmental variables and leadership behaviours. Journal of Business Research, 140, 361-369.

Martin, R. L. (2017). CEOs should stop thinking that execution is somebody else’s job; it is theirs. Harvard Business Review, 2-5.

Mohiya, M., & Sulphey, M. (2021). Do Saudi Arabian leaders exhibit ambidextrous leadership: A qualitative examination. Sage Open, 11(4), 21582440211054496.

Moshashai, D., Leber, A. M., & Savage, J. D. (2020). Saudi Arabia plans for its economic future: Vision 2030, the National Transformation Plan and Saudi fiscal reform. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 47(3), 381-401.

Naushad, M. (2022). Sme innovation and employee creativity: the role of entrepreneurial leadership.

Piedade, S. D. R., Wardana, I. M., Riana, I., & Dewi, I. (2019). The role of motivation: The effect of transformational leadership on employee performance. International Research Journal of Management, IT, and Social Sciences, 6(6), 253-263.

Pizzolitto, E., Verna, I., & Venditti, M. (2023). Authoritarian leadership styles and performance: a systematic literature review and research agenda. Management Review Quarterly, 73(2), 841-871.

Preko, A. K. (2022). Leadership and human capital management in new public management. New Public Management in Africa: Contemporary Issues, 105-131.

Ramady, M. A. (2010). The Saudi Arabian economy: Policies, achievements, and challenges.

Reck, F. S., Fischer, D., & Brettel, M. (2021). Ethical decision-making in family firms: The role of employee identification. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-23.

Saad Alessa, G. (2021). The dimensions of transformational leadership and its organizational effects in public universities in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 682092.

Saini, G. (2021). Thinking Styles and Leadership Skills of Managers on Organizational Productivity. In Handbook of Research on Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Managerial and Leadership Psychology (pp. 448-458). IGI Global.

Shportun, O., Branitska, T., Kaplinsky, V., Zharovska, O., Baiurko, N., & SIRYK, E. (2020). Peculiarities of leadership manifestation in the youth social group. In.

Sywelem, M. M. G. (2022). Challenges and facilitators of new teachers’ professional socialization in international schools in Saudi Arabia. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 21(3), 603-617.

Thurlow, A., & Helms Mills, J. (2009). Change, talk and sensemaking. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 22(5), 459-479.

van der Hoek, M., Beerkens, M., & Groeneveld, S. (2021). Matching leadership to circumstances? A vignette study of leadership behavior adaptation in an ambiguous context. International Public Management Journal, 24(3), 394-417.

VIllanueva, L. K. B., Mendoza, M. A., Salcedo, R., & Morán, A. M. I. (2020). The transformational leadership, sustainable key for the development of ecuadorian companies. A neutrosophic psychology approach. Neutrosophic Sets Syst, 34, 143-152.

Vukasović, T. (2019). The Effects Of Changes In Leadership On Organisational Climate. In: Pridobljeno s http://www. toknowpress. net.




How to Cite

Alfozan, A. A. (2024). Leadership Dynamics in Organizational Change: An In-Depth Exploration of Public and Private Sectors in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation, 3(1), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.54536/ajmri.v3i1.2393