Geospatial Assessment of Oil Spill’s Impact in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area Rivers State, Nigeria


  • Victor Ayodele Ijaware Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure Ondo State, Niger
  • Kanu Ifeyinwa Florence Mary Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure Ondo State, Niger



Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI), Oil Spill Index, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)


Environmental degradation resulting from oil spills has emerged as a critical issue requiring immediate attention. This study uses geospatial techniques to investigate the impact of oil spills in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Landsat images, administrative map of the study area and historical oil spill data were data used in carrying out this study. The images were pre-processed through atmospheric and geometric corrections. Spatial analysis of four remote sensing indices-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for assessing vegetation health, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) for detecting water bodies, Land Surface Temperature (LST) for measuring surface temperature, and Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI) for identifying built-up areas-was conducted using the raster calculator in ArcGIS. The study employed the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to assign weights to these indices based their relative significance regarding oil spill impact. Subsequently, reclassification and integration of this information were done to generate Oil Spill Index (OSI) maps for 2003, 2013, and 2023. Validation of the Oil Spill Index (OSI) of various points before and after an oil spill incident was performed, specifically contrasting 2003 with 2013 and 2023 OSI values. This was to affirm the accuracy and predictive capability of the OSI maps in identifying oil spill-prone areas. Findings revealed OSI values for 2003 and 2013, indicating a range of 1.04 to 3.48 for 2003, with a noticeable increase observed in 2013, expanding the range to 3.08 to 4.72. Similarly, a comparison of OSI values between 2003 and 2023 indicates OSI values, ranging from 1.64 to 3.92 in 2003, then in 2023 after the oil spill incidents, there were notable changes in the OSI values, with the range shifting to 3.2 to 4.84. This suggests a significant increase in the impact of oil spill on the affected areas over the two-decade. This comprehensive index map serves as a tool for monitoring and assessing the effects of oil spills on the study area, thereby achieving the research objectives effectively.


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How to Cite

Ijaware, V. A., & Kanu, I. F. M. (2024). Geospatial Assessment of Oil Spill’s Impact in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area Rivers State, Nigeria. American Journal of Geospatial Technology, 3(1), 51–68.