Factors Affecting Employee Retention of Private Companies in Cambodia Using Delphi Method
Keywords:Compensation, Employee Retention, Human Capital, Job Satisfaction, Training and Development
In slightly more than a decade (1988-2000), the eminent issue for companies was one of attracting and retaining people with the skills necessary to do the work. The situation became even more complex during 2001 – 2009 period as an economic meltdown forced thousands of companies to cut back or downsize their employee populations. Employee turn-over is often associated with “employee retention”. Employee retention plays an important role to keep up with other companies amidst the rapid evolvement of global economic environment. The objectives of the study are (1) To identify and assess the factors affecting employee retention of private employees in Cambodia from the experts point of view such as HR practitioners etc. and (2) To recommend ways on how to improve employee retention. The researcher employed Delphi Method Technique with 2 rounds. The Delphi methodology is used to determine, predict and explore group attitudes, needs and priorities. The researcher invited 34 panel of experts who are at least middle managers of private companies in Cambodia such as HR professionals and managers and with at least 5 years of experience in the field. After round 2, the experts agreed that there are 5 factors greatly affecting employee retention of private companies in Cambodia and they are: compensation; promotion, opportunity and growth; work environment; training and development; and work-life balance.
Abbasi, S. M., & Hollman, K. W. (2000). Turnover: The real bottom line. Public Personnel management, 29(3), 333-342.
Adair, John. (2006). Part 2. Maslow and Herzberg, Chapter 6. Herzberg’s motivationhygiene theory. Leadership and motivation. London and Philadelphia: Kogan Page.
Akala, Harrison (2012). Factors Influencing Employee Retention among the non-teaching staff at the Universitu of Nairobi, Kenya
Alpern R, Canavan ME, Thompson JT, McNatt Z, Tatek D, Lindfield T, Bradley EH. (2013). Development of brief instrument for assessing healthcare employee satisfaction in a low-income setting. PloS one., 8(11), Nov 5, e79053.
Alshmemri, Mohammed; Shahwan-Akl, Lina, Maude, Phillip (2017). Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. Life Science Journal, 5, 14.
Aguenza, B. B., & Mat Som, A. (2012). Motivational Factors of Employee Retention and Engagement in Organizations. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 1(6), 88-95.
Armstrong, Michael, (2009). Strategic, ‘Hand Book of Human Resource Management’Practice: 10th ed, Philadelphia, Kogan Page Limited, UK
Australian Telework Advisory Committee Report (2006). Telework for Australian Employees and Businesses: Maximising the Economic and Social Benefits of Flexible Working Practices
Benson, G. S. (2006). Employee Development, Commitment and Intention to Turnover: A Test of “Employability” policies in action. Human Resource Management Journal, 16, 2(2), 173-192.
Bernard, B. (2012). Factors that Determine Academic Staff Retention and Commitment in Private Tertiary Institutions in Botswana: Empirical Review. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies.
Biju, Roy (2015). A Study on Employee Retention Factors in the Indian Banking Industry: AnEmpirical Study, International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, 3(3), March, 346-352.
Brill, M, Weldermann, S., Olsen, J., Keable, E and Bosti (2001). Disapproving widespread myths about workplace design. Research Report.
Biswas, M. K. & Suar, D., (2016). Antecedents and consequences of employer branding, Journal of Business Ethics 136(1), 57–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014- 2502-3
Boomsma, A. (2000). Reporting Analyses of Covariance Structures, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 7(3), 461-483, https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0703_6.
Brief Analysis of Preliminary Results of the Pilot Survey ,(2010). (PS2010) of 2011 Economic Census of Cambodia.
Brown, Timothy A. & Moore, Michael T. (2013). Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Boston University
Brunetto Y, Farr-Wharton R (2002). Using social identity theory to explain the job satisfaction of public sector employees. International Journal of Public Sector Manage, 15(7), 534-551.
Bui, Nguyen & Ho, Quang (2018). Factors Influencing Employee Retention Thru The Mediatior Job Satisfaction: A Study of Office Staff in Ho Chi Minh. Economics Soceity
Calist, Irema (2015). Assessment of Factors Influencing Employee Retention in Tanzania’s Non-governmental sectors: A Case study of Ifakara Health Institute. The Open University of Tanzania
Catalyst. Org (2020). Turnover and Retention (Quick take). https://www.catalyst.org/research/turnover-and-retention/
Champagne, P., & McAfee, B. (1989). Motivating strategies for performance and productivity: A duide to human resource development. New York: Quorum Books.
Chandranshu, Sinha & Ruchi, Sinha (2012). Factors Affecting Employee Retention: AComparative Analysis of two Organizations from Heavy Engineering Industry’, European Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), 145-163.
Charter, Richard (2010). Sample Size Requirements for Precise Estimates of Reliability, Generalizability, and Validity Coefficients, Taylor and Francis Online, 559 - 566.
Choo, C.W. and Bontis, N. (2002). The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge, Oxford University Press,
Chung-Hsiung Fang, Sue-Ting Chang, Guan-Li Chen (2009). Applying Structural Equation Model to Study of the Relationship Model among leadership style, satisfaction, Organization commitment and Performance in hospital industry.
Christeen, G. (2015). Retaining Professional Workers: What Makes Them Stay? Employee Relations, 37, 102-121.
Corporate Finance Institue, n.d. What is a Private Company? (https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/finance/private-company/)
Crain, M. (2009). Managing identity: buying into the brand at work. Iowa L. Rev., 95, 1179. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1481762
Daryl, M. & Phil A, (2005). Recruitment and retention of estates and facilities staff in the NHS, Facilities, 23(9), 426-437 https://doi.org/10.1108/02632770510602360
Das, L. and Baruah (2013). Employee Retention: A Review of Literature. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 14(2), 08–16. https://doi.org/10.9790/487x-1420816
Davies, D., Taylor,R., Savery, C (2001). The role of appraisal, remuneration and training in improving staff relations in the Western Australian accommodation industry: A comparative study. Journal of European Training, 25(67), 366-373.
Edmondson DR (2005). Likert scales: A history. Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM). April 28-May1,
Ekra, Kabura Mwangi & Omondi, Mary (2016). Factors Influencing Staff Retention in the Banking Industry in Kenya, A case Study of Equity Bank Limited, Journal of Business Management, 3(2), 428-454.
Ellenbecker, C.H. (2004). A Theoretical Model of Job Retention for Home Health Care Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47, 303-310.
Eyster, L., Johnson, R. and Toder, E. (2008). Current strategies to employ & retain older workers. Urban. http://www.urban.org
Gardner DG, Van Dyne L, Pierce JL (2004). The effects of pay level on organization-based self-esteem and performance: a field study. Journal of Occup. Organ. Psychology., 77(3), 307-322.
Garg, P. & Rastongi, R. (2006). New model of job design motivation employees Performance. Journal of Management Development.
Gaskin, J., James, M., and Lim, J. (2019). Master Validity Tool, AMOS Plugin. Gaskination’s StatWiki.
George, J.M. and Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational behavior, Fifth Edition,Pearson/Prentice Hall, 78
Gering, John & Conner, John. (2002). A strategic approach to employee retention. Healthcare financial management. Journal of the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 56, 40-4.
Gibson, J. W., Regina, G. and Edwards, M. (2009). Generational Differences in a Workplace : Personal Values, Behaviours and Popular Beliefs. Journal of Diversity Management, 4(3), 2-3.
Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669
Graham, M. Murray, B. & Musso, L., (2015). Stockrelated rewards, social identity, and the attraction and retention of employees in entrepreneurial SMEs, In Managing People in Entrepreneurial Organizations. 107-145.
Grissom, Jason A.(2012). Revisiting the Impact of Participative Decision Making on Public Employee Retention: The Moderating Influence of Effective Managers. American Review of Public Administration, 400-418.
Hair, J., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L, Kuppelwieser, V. (2014).Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research, European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). Sage.
Handy, L.W. (2008). The importance of the work environment variables on the transfer of training. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Education ,University of North Carolina State University, Carolina, USA
Harris, L. (2015). A theory of intellectual Capital. The University of Lowa Libraries. Sage Journals.
Henseler, J., C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt (2015). A New Criterion for Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-based Structural Equation Modeling, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
Hess, N., & Jepsen, D. (2009). Career stage and generational differences in psychological contracts. Career Development International, 14(3), 261–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13620430910966433
Hewitt, P. (2002). High Performance Workplaces: The Role of Employee Involvement in a Modern Economy. www.berr.gov.uk/files/file26555.pdf
Hewlett, S.A, Sherbin L. & Sumberg K., (2009). How Y and boomer gen. will reshape your agenda.. Harvard business review,(5 July - August 2009), Retrieved on September 5, 2009. www.hbr.org
Hollweg, W. C. and C. H. (2019). Cambodia’s Future Jobs: Linking to the Economy of Tomorrow (Summary Page). World Bank Group, 1.
Horwitz, F.M., Heng, C.T. and Quazi, H.A. (2003).Finders, Keepers? Attracting, Motivating and Retaining Knowledge Workers. Human Resource Management Journal, 13, 23-44.
Hsin-Ling Hung, James W. Altschuld, Yi-Fang Lee,(2008).Methodological and conceptual issues confronting a cross-country Delphi study of educational program evaluation, Evaluation and Program Planning, 31(2), 191-198, 0149-7189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2008.02.005.
Hsu, Chia-Chien and Sandford, Brian A. (2007). The Delphi Technique: Making Sense of Consensus, Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 12. https://doi.org/10.7275/pdz9-th90
Huang, Ing-Chung & Lin, Hao-Chieh & Chuang, Chih-Hsun. (2006). Constructing factors related to worker retention. International Journal of Manpower., 27, 491-506. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720610683976.
Huck, S. W. (2007). Reading Statistics and Research, United States of America, Allyn & Bacon.
Huffman, A.H., Casper, W.J. and Payne, S.C. (2014). How does spouse career support relate to employee turnover? Work interfering with family and job satisfaction as mediators, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(2), 194-212.
Hyman, J. and Summers, J. (2004). Lacking balance? Work-life employment practices in the modern economy, Personnel Review, 33, 418-29.
Islam, M & Alam, J. (2014). Factors Influencing Intention To Quit or Stay in Jobs: An Empirical Study on Selected Sectors in Bangladesh
Jansen, Derek & Warren, Kerryn (2020). What (Exactly) Is Research Methodology? https://gradcoach.com/what-is-research-methodology/
Jarman G, (2017). Future of the Global Workplace: Coping with High Turnover. https://ieglobal.vistra.com/blog/2017/1/future-global-workplace-coping-high-turnover#
Johnson, J, Griffeth, R.W., and Griffin, M. (2000). Factors discrimination functional and dysfunctional sales force turnover, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 15(6), 399-415.
Joshi, Ankur, Kale, Saket, Chandel, Satish and Pal, D.K. (2015). Likert Scale: Explored and Explained. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJAST/2015/14975
Kaliski, B. S. (2007). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, Second edition, Thompson Gale, Detroit, 446
Katz, R. (1978). Influence of job longevity on Employee Reactions to Task Characteristics Human Relations, 31, 703-424.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.
Kline, R. B. (2010). Promise and pitfalls of structural equation modeling in gifted research. In B. Thompson & R. F. Subotnik (Eds.), Methodologies for conducting research on giftedness, American Psychological Association. 147–169. https://doi.org/10.1037/12079-007
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.
Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research and Methodology Methods and Techniques (Second Revised Edition). 25 New Age International Publishers. New Delhi, India
Kossivi, B., Xu, M., & Kalgora, B. (2016). Study on Determining Factors of Employee Retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(5), 261–268. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.45029
Kreitner, R. and Kinicki, A. (2010). Organizational Behavior, 9th ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY.
Kroon, B. and Freese, C. (2013). Can HR Practices Retain Flexworkers with Their Agency? International Journal of Manpower, 34, 899-917
Kumar, R. (2019). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners.Sage Publications, Fifth Edition, UK.
Kundu, S. C., and Lata, K., (2017). Effects of supportive work environment on employee retention: Mediating role of organizational engagement, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 25(4), 703-722.
Kupperschmidt, B. R. (2000). Multigenerational employees: strategies for effective management. The Health Care Manager, 19(1), 65–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00126450-200019010-00011
Leidner, S. and Simon, M.S. (2013). Keeping Potential Job-Hoppers’ Feet on Ground. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21, 31-33.
LI, J. (2013). Quantitative Data Analysis Techniques for Data-Driven Marketing.
Loan‐Clarke, J., Arnold, J., Coombs, C., Hartley, R. and Bosley, S. (2010). Retention, Turnover and Return—A Longi- tudinal Study of Allied Health Professionals in Britain. Human Resource Management Journal, 20, 391-406.
Low, A. (2015). War for Talent – Cambodia ’ s skills shortage. HRInc.Cambodia. http://www.hrinc.asia/index.php/myanmar-unlocking-the-potential-country-diagnostic-study/13-hrinc-insights/hrinc-articles
Low, A. (2015). Keynote speech . Graduate Employability in. HRINc.Cambodia. http://www.hrinc.asia/index.php/insights/hrinc-infocus/95-keynote-speech-graduate-employability-in-cambodia
Low, A. (2015). War for Talent – Cambodia ’ s skills shortage. HRINc.Cambodia. http://www.hrinc.asia/index.php/insights/hrinc-articles/145-war-for-talent-cambodia-s-skills-shortage
Lyons, J. & Nelson, A. (2009). Employee Retention: A Business Case For Engagement.
Malhotra, N. K., & Birks, D. F. (2007). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach. London: Prentice Hall.
Mande, B., Ishak, Z., Idris, K., & Ammani, S. (2013). Using Structural Equation Modeling to explain Board Process and Board Performance in a developing economy. International Journal of Global Business, 6(1), 58-80.
Mardia, K.V.(1970). Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications, Biometrika, 57(3), December, 519–530, https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/57.3.519
Matsangou, E., (2015). Secrets of Google’s talent retention success, European CEO, Retrieved on October 29, 2017.
Memon, M. A., Ting, H., Cheah, J. H., Thurasamy, R., Chuah, F., & Cham, T. H. (2020). Sample size for survey research: Review and recommendations. Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling, 4(2), 1-20.
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M.-H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.64
McLeod S. (2014). Likert Scale Definition, Examples And Analysis.retrived on march 8, 2023. http://www.simplypsychology.org /Likert-scale.html
Messmer, M. (2000). Orientations programs can be key to employee retention. In Strategic Finance., 81(8),12-15.
Meyer, John, Laryssa Topolnytsky, Henryk Krajewski and Ian Gellatly (2003). Best Practices: Employee Retention. Toronto: Tomson-Carswell.
Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation (2nd ed.). SAGE Publication, Inc.
Milkovich GM, Newman JM (2004). Compensation (8th ed.). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin McGraw-Hill. 76. Meyer, John, Laryssa Topolnytsky
Miller, N., Erickson, A., & Yust, B. (2001). Sense of place in the workplace: The relationship between personal objects and job satisfaction and motivation. Journal of Interior Design, 27(1), 35-44.
Miner, John B.(2005). Organizational Behavior 1. Essential Theory of Motoivation and Leadership. ME Sharpe Inc,
Mita, M., Aarti K. and Ravneeta, D. (2014). Study on Employee Retention and Commitment. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, 2, 154-164.
Mohamed, G. and Badr ElDin A. (2016). Employer branding: What constitutes “An Employer of choice?. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR), 11(1).
Moncraz, E., Zhao, J., and Kay, C. (2009). An exploratory study on US lodging properties’, organizational practices and employee turnover and retention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(4), 437-458.
Mouton, Hugo and Bussin, Mark (2017). Effectiveness of employer branding on staff retention and compensation expectations, South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 6-8.
Nagib Gharib, M., Kahwaji, A. T., & Osman Elrasheed, M. (2017). Factors Affecting Staff Retention Strategies Used in Private Syrian Companies during the Crisis. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(2), 202–206. http:www.econjournals.com
Nnadi, C. S. O., & Chinedu, U. A. (2019). Effect of Diversity Management Strategies on Employee Retention among Staff of Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(7), https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v9-i7/6199
Noah, Y. (2008). A Study of Worker Participation in Management Decision Making Within Selected Establishments in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Social Science, 17(1), 31-39.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Nyangi, Phoebe A (2011). Perceived Effects of Employee Benefits on Employee Retention at Kenya Forest Service. School of Business, University of Nairobi
Okoli, Chitu and Pawlowski,Suzanne (2004). The Delphi method as a research tool: an example, design considerations and applications, Information & Management, 42(1), 15-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2003.11.002.
Oluwatayo, J. (2012). Validity and reliability issues in educational research. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2, 391-400.
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS Survival Manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (4th ed.). Everbest Printing Co.
Park K. (2013). Social sciences and health. In Park K, editor. Park Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Bhanot Publishers.
Parker, O. and Wright, L (2001). Pay and employee commitment: the missing link.In Ivey Business
Pawirosumarto, S., Sarjana, P. K., and Gunawan, R. (2017).The effect of the work environment, leadership style, and organizational culture towards job satisfaction and its implication towards employee performance in Parador Hotels and Resorts, Indonesia. International Journal of Law and Management, 59(6), 1337- 1358.
Powell, C. (2003). The Delphi technique: Myths and realities. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(4), 376–382.
Prince, B.J. (2005). Career-focused employee transfer processes. Career Development International, 10(4), 293-309.
Phou, S. (2013). The symbolic, experientail, functional consumptions of tourism destination from the perspective of social idenity theory (Doctoral Dissertation). Institute of International Management.
Ramlall, S. (2003). Managing Employee Retention as a Strategy for Increasing Organizational Competitiveness, Applied H.R.M. Research, 8(2), 63-72.
Ramlall, Sunil (2004). A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their Implications for Employee Retention within Organization. The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge.
Ruthankoon, R., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2003). Testing Herzberg’s two-factor theory in the Thai construction industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(5), 333–341.
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
Schwarz N, Bohner G. (2001). The construction of attitudes. In: Tesser A & Schwarz N, Editors. Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell. 436- 457.
Selesho, J. M. Naile, I. (2014). Academic Staff Retention As A Human Resource Factor: University Perspective, International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 13, 295.
Ses, Socheata; Nil, K. (2015). Practical Procedures for Employment Separation in Cambodia Introduction : Separation is costly. What is a healthy turnover rate ? HRINc.Cambodia, 1–5. http://www.hrinc.asia/index.php/insights/hrinc-articles/144-practical-procedures-for-employment-separation-in-cambodia
Silbert, L.T. (2005). The effect of Tangible Rewards on Perceived Organizational Support. Management Sciences
Sinha, C., & Sinha, R. (2012). Factors affecting employee retention: A comparative analysis of two organizations from heavy engineering industry. European journal of business and management, 4(3), 145-162.
Shaker F, Ahmed AS. (2014). Influence of Employer Brand Image on Employee Identity. Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, 3(3), 51- 59.
Shamsuzzoha A.& Rezaul Hasan S, (2008). Employee Turnover- A study of its causes and Effects to Different Industruies in Bangladesh, University of Finland.
Shiu, E. (2010). Slide Presentation. retrieved from www.strath.ac.uk/.../E.Shiu_-_Presentation_slides,_Oct_2010
Spence Laschinger, H.K., Leiter, M., Day, A. and Gilin, D. (2009). Workplace Empowerment, Incivility, and Burnout: Impact on Staff Nurse Recruitment and Retention Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 302-311.
Stets, J. , Burke P. (2000). Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly. American Sociological Association, 63(3), 224-237.
Stovel, Meaghan & Bontis, Nick (2002). Voluntary Turnover: Knowledge Management - friend or foe? Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3(3), 303-322.
Suhr, D. D. (2006). Exploratory or Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Cary, CN: SAS Institute Inc.
Sunil, R (2004). A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their Implications for Employee Retention within Organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5, 52-63.
Swamy, C. J., Nagesh, P., & Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S. (2019). Factors Effects on employee retention in manufacturing firms. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 9(1), 4667-4672.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th edn). Boston Pearson education.
Taherdoost, Hamed (2016). Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument; How to Test the Validation of a Questionnaire/Survey in a Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), 5(3), 28-36.
Taherdoost, Hamed (2016). Sampling Methods in Research Methodology; How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), 5(2), 18-27.
Tedla, Mulu (2018). Factors Affecting Employee Retention in the Banking Industry: The Case of Selected Private Commercial Banks in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University
Terera, S. R., & Ngirande, H. (2014). The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and employee retention. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), 481–487. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n1p481
Tomlinson, A. (2002). High Technology workers want Respect. Survey Canadian Human Resources Reporter, 15(3).
Tremblay, M. L., O’Brien-Pallas, L., Viens, C., Brabant, L.H. and Gelinas, C. (2006). Towards an Integrated Approach for the Management of Ageing Nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 14, 207-212.
Tymon Jr., W. G., Stumpf, S.A. and Smith, R.R. (2011). Manager Support Predicts Turnover of Professionals in India. Career Development International, 16, 293-312.
Tyssen, T. G. (2005). Buku Petunjuk Bagi Manajer Pemula Alih Bahasa, A. H. Pudjaatmaka (Translator), ARCA, Jakarta.
Walker, J. W. (2001). Perspectives. Human resource planning, 24(1), 6-10.
Welling, S. (2014). Using Social Identity Theory to Measure the Belonging inn Entry Level Nurses to Gauge Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention. New Mexico State University
Wells, M., & Thelen, L. (2002). What does your workspace say about you? The influence of personality, status and workspace on personalization. Environment and Behavior, 3, 300-321.
Wilkinson, D., & Birminham, P. (2013). Using Research Instruments: A Guide for Researchers. London: Routledge Falmer.
Whitley, B. E. (2002). Principals of Research and Behavioural Science, Boston, McGraw-Hill.
Wood, M.E., Mansoor, G.F., Hashemy, P., Namey, E., Gohar, F., Ayoubi, S.F. and Todd, C.S. (2013). Factors Influen- cing the Retention of Midwives in the Public Sector in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Assessment of Midwives in Eight Provinces. Midwifery, 29, 1137-1144.
Worldbank. (2020). Labor force , total - Cambodia. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/
Workforce Planning for Wisconsin State Government (2005). Employee Retention. http://workforceplanning.wi.gov/
Zekic N. (2016). Job Security or Employment Security: What’s in a Name? European Labour Law Journal, 7(4), 548-575. https://doi.org/10.1177/201395251600700403
Zineldin, M. (2000). TRM Total Relationship Management, Student litterateur, Lund
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Ramon Macaraig Jr, Soun Hong, Sau Lay
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.