Adsorption of Some Heavy Metals from Wastewater using Fine Sand and Zeolite
Keywords:Zeolite, Heavy Metals, Fine Sand, Column, Soap Stock, Physical Precipitation
In this study, successive columns containing different types of solid state materials were used to investigate the treatment efficiency of soya bean oil mill wastewater (soap stock) using heavy metals analysis. Soap stock is a liquid waste obtained from soya bean oil industry from the neutralization process which has several environmental issues due to its high amount of organic and inorganic pollutants. Soap stock emerges from the refining process when oil is treated with a dilute alkali solution separating the FFAs as soaps. In this present study, an attempt was made at treating the wastewater using successive columns containing different types of solid state materials. The wastewater was passed through successive columns of fine sand, Zeolite and Zeolite/fine sand composite.. This treatment method decreased the toxic concentration of heavy metals assessed which include Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd by mean percentages of 96.60%, 100%, 62.0%, 16.10% and 96.60% respectively. Most contaminants were removed in the Zeolite/sand composite column possibly as a result of ion exchange capacity in addition to high sorption affinity of Zeolite on its active sites. This simple Zeolite based method enable us to obtain environmentally friendly treated soya bean oil water that can be safely used for irrigation purposes.
Ahmaruzzaman, M. (2008). Adsorption of phenolic compounds on low-cost adsorbents: A review. Journal of Advanced Colloid Interface Science,1(2), 48-67.
Anagnostopoulos, V and Symeopoulos B. (2013). Sorption of europium by malt spent rootlets, a low cost biosorbent: effect of pH, kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of Radio Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 7(13), 295-298
Anagnostopoulos, V. Manariotis, I.D and Karapanagioti H.K. (2012). Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions by malt spent rootlets. Chemical Engineering Journal, 11(2), 135-141.
Anwar, A., Yousef N.Y., Hasan , Abdullah, S. Al-Farraj., (2014). Olive mill wastewater treatment using a simple zeolite-based low-cost method Journal of Environmental Management 145:341-348.
Ansari, R and Mosayebzadeh, Z. (2010). Removal of basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions using sawdust and sawdust coated with polypyrrole. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society,7(2), 339-350.
Alluri, H.K., Ronda, S.R., Settalluri, V.S., Bondili, V.S., Suryanarayana, V.,Venkateshwar, P.(2007). Bio sorption: An eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal. African Journal of Biotechnology .6 (11), 2924-2931.
Aslan, S., Alyuz, B., Bozkurt, Z., Bakaoğlu, M., (2009).Characterization and Biological Treatability of Edible Oil Wastewaters. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 18(4), ,533-538.
Auta, M. and Hameed .B.H. (2013).Coalesced chitosan activated carbon composite for batch and fixed-bed adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes. Journal of Advanced Colloid Interface Science. 2(6), 199-206.
Babel, S. and Kurniawan T.A., (2003). Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. Journal of Hazard Material, 3(97), 219–243.
Bansal,.M, Singh .D, Garg V.K. and Rose P. (2009). Use of Agricultural Waste for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering,1(2):108-114.
Bhatnagar .A. and Minocha. A.K. (2006).Conventional and non-conventional adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water- A review, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 3(13), 203-217.
Borrega, M., Tolonen L.K., Bardot F., Testova L. and Sixta .H. (2013). Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping. Journal of Biological Resource Technology, 13(5), 665–671.
Carro, L., Anagnostopoulos, V., Lodeiro, P., Barriada .J.L., Herrero R. and De Vicente, E.S. (2010).A dynamic proof of mercury elimination from solution through a combined sorption- reduction process. Journal of Biological Resource Technology, 8(23), 8969-8974.
Chipasa, K.B., (2001).Limits of physicochemical treatment of wastewater in the vegetable oil refining industry, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 10(3),141-147.
Chakrabarti, S., Chaudhuri, B and Dutta .B.K. (2008). Adsorption of model textile dyes from aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes as adsorbents: equilibrium, kinetics and fixed bed column study. International journal of Environment and Pollution, 1(4), 261-274.
Diez, V., Ramos, C., Cabezas. J.L., (2012). Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), Filtration and cleaning assays. Journal of Water Science Technology,65:1847–1853
Diez, V., Ramos, C., Cabezas. J.L., (2012). Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), Filtration and cleaning assays. Journal of Water Science Technology,65:1847–1853.
Dang, V.B.H., Doan. H.D. Dang-Vu T and Lohi., A. (2009). Equilibrium and kinetics of bio sorption of Cadmium (II) and copper(II) ions by wheat straw. Journal of Biological Resource Technology, 4(1), 211–219.
Fatemeh, R.P., Pratap. S.R, Ibrahim, M.H., Norizan, E. (2010). A Review of Current Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment Methods: Vermi-composting as a Sustainable Practice. World Applied Sciences Journal 11(1), 70-81.
Galá, J. Rodríguez A., Gómez J.M., Allen S.J and Walker .G.M. (2013).Reactive dye adsorption onto a novel mesoporous carbon. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2(11), 62–68.
Hansen, C.L. and Cheong. D.Y. (2007). Agricultural Waste Management in Food Processing, in Handbook of Farm, Dairy, and Food Machinery, edited by: Myer Kutz, William Andrew Publishing, US.
Ismail, B., Hussain, S.T. and Akram. S. (2013). Adsorption of methylene blue onto spinel magnesium aluminate nanoparticles: Adsorption isotherms, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 8(2), 395–402.
Jambulingam, M., Karthikeyan., S., Sivakumar .P., Kiruthika,J and Maiyalagan T. (2007). Characteristic study of some activated carbons from agricultural wastes. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research,2 (6), 495-500.
Jayarajan, M., Arunachalam, R and Annadurai, G. (2011). Agricultural wastes of jackfruit peel nano-porous adsorbent for removal of rhodamine dye. Asian Journal of Applied Science, 6(4), 263-270.
Johar, N., Ahmad, I and Dufresne, A. (2012). Extraction, preparation and characterization of cellulose fibres and nanocrystals from rice husk. International Journal of Industrial Crops and Products, 37(1), 93–99.
Khan, N.A., Ibrahim S. and Subramaniam .P. (2004).Elimination of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Using Agricultural Wastes as Adsorbents. Malaysian Journal of Science,1(23), 43 – 51.
Kwon J.S., Yun S.T., Lee J.H., Kim S.O., Jo H.Y.,(2010). Removal of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic (III) from aqueous solutions using scoria: kinetics and equilibrium of sorption. Journal of Hazard Material, 2 (6), 307–313.
Muthukumaran, K. and Beulah S.S. (2010). SEM and FT-IR studies on adsorption of mercury (II) and chromium (VI) from wastewater using chemically activated Syzygium jambolanum nut carbon. Asian Journal of Chemistry,22(10), 7857-7864.
Oncel, M.S., Muhcu A., Demirbas, E. and Kobya, M. (2013).A comparative study of chemical precipitation and electrocoagulation for treatment of coal acid drainage wastewater. Journal of Environmental Engineering,1: 989–995.
Pitakpoolsil, W. and Hunsom, M. (2013). Adsorption of pollutants from biodiesel wastewater using chitosan flakes. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 44: 963–971
Rose, E. K, Benjamin, I. Ahola, D. O, Donald, T. K, Fredrick, T. S, Aondoakaa, S. N. (2020). A simple Zeolite-based Treatment of Soya Bean Oil Mill Wastewater for Irrigation Purpose. American journal of Chemical Engineering.8 (1), 19-26
Rose, E. K, Donald, T. K, Ahola, D. O, , Terungwa, L. Benjamin, I. John, A. O. (2020). Adsorption Studies of Silica Adsorbent Using Rice Husk as a Base Material for Metal Ions Removal from Aqueous Solution. American journal of Chemical Engineering. 8(2), 48-53.
Srikanth. P., Somasekhar S.A., Kanthi G.H and Raghu B.K. (2013).Analysis of Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy from the samples taken from Visaklampafnam. International Journal of Environment, Ecology, Family and Urban Sciences (IJEEFUS).1(6), 120-125.
Sierra.J., Martn, E., Montserrat. G., Cruaras, R., and Garau, M. A., (2001).Characterization and evolution of a soil affected by olive oil mill wastewater disposal. Journal of Environmental science.2(13), 202 -211
Varga, M., Takács, M., Záray, G. and Varga, I. (2013). Comparative study of sorption kinetics and equilibrium of chromium (VI) on charcoals prepared from different low-cost materials. Journal of Micro Chemical Science, 107:25–30 11(1), 70-81.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Benjamin Ishwah, Rose. E. Kukwa, John. O. Ajegi , Teghtegh. F. Samoh, Terhile. M. Iortile , Tor P. Ngunoon , Solomom. D. Igbawase , Abah. C. Nyerere
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.