The Mediating Effect of Work Values on the Relationship Between Reflective Thinking Skills and Positive Personality Traits Among Public School Elementary School Teachers


  • Sheryl S. Salinas University of Mindanao, Philippines
  • Lyndon A. Quines University of Mindanao, Philippines



Educational Management, Mediating Effect, Work Values, Reflective Thinking Skills, Positive Personality Traits, Philippines


This study determined the mediating effect of work values on the relationship between reflective thinking skills and positive personality traits among 310 teachers in the Division of Davao del Sur, Philippines using a non-experimental quantitative descriptive-correlational research design. Weighted mean, Pearson r, and path analysis using AMOS were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed significant relationships between reflective thinking skills and positive personality traits, between reflective thinking skills and work values, and between work values and positive personality traits. Employing path analysis, results revealed a complete mediation of work values on the relationship between reflective thinking skills and personality traits among public elementary teachers. This indicates that work values are only one of the reasons how reflective thinking skills can influence positive personality traits.


Download data is not yet available.


Abeln, L., (2015). Investigating the lived experience of teacher decision-making: A Phenomenological Approach.

Aktas, F.N., Yakici-Topbas, E.S., & Dede, Y. (2018). Examination of decision-making skill in the context of critical situations. SHS Web of Conferences 48, 01019.

Altun, T. (2015). An examination of the relationship among self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes towards teaching profession and anxiety levels of teacher candidates in teaching certificate program. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Antalya.

Alexander, R. (2017). Towards Dialogic Teaching: Rethinking classroom talk (5th Ed.). Cambridge: Dialogos.

Amira, A., Mandler, D., Hauptman, S. & Gorev, D. (2017). Discomfort as a means of pre-service teachers’ professional development – an action research as part of the ‘Research Literacy’ course. European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(2), 231–245.

Ashman, G. (2018). The Truth About Teaching. London: Sage.

Atalay, T. D., & Karahan, B.U. (2016). An assessment on reflective thinking tendencies among turkish teacher candidates. International Journal of Turkish Education and Training, 2, 18-27.

Aycicek, B., Yanpar Yelken, T., & Yokus, G . (2019). An analysis of teachers’ reflective thinking tendencies depending on various variables. Trakya Journal of Education, 9(3) , 612-626.

Aydogmus, M. (2017). Investigation of the effectiveness of reflective teaching activities in secondary school. Necmettin Erbakan University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Konya.

Bacher-Hicks, A., Chin, M. J., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2017). An evaluation of bias in three measures of teacher quality: Value-added, classroom observations, and student surveys. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Ballou, D., & Springer, M. G. (2015). Using student test scores to measure teacher performance: Some problems in the design and implementation of evaluation systems. Educational Researcher, 44, 77– 86.

Barnett, T., Lawless, B., Kim, H., & Vista, A. (2017). Complementary strategies for teaching collaboration and critical thinking skills. Washington, DC: Brookings. strategies-for-teaching-collaboration-and-critical-thinking-skills/

Bastian, K. C., McCord, D. M., Marks, J. T., & Carpenter, D. (2015). Do personality traits impact beginning teacher performance and persistence? Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Blank, C. Houkamau, H. & Kingi, L. (2016). Unconscious bias and education: A comparative study of Māori and African American students.

Blazar, D., & Kraft, M. A. (2017). Teacher and teaching effects on students’ attitudes and behaviors. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39, 146– 170.

Boyd, P. (2022). Teachers’ Research Literacy as Research-Informed Professional Judgment. International Perspectives. Wydawnictwo Libron, Kraków, (pp. 17-43).

Borden-King, L., Gamas, W., Hintz, K., & Hultz, C. (2020). Should standardized testing define our profession?, Phi Delta Kappan, 10.1177/0031721720909586, 101, 6, (24-28).

Breitweiser, T. (2019). Cultural Identity In Classrooms: Ideas and Suggestions for a More Inclusive Culture.

Buenvinida, L. P., Rodriguez, M. T. M., & Sapin, S. B. (2020). 21ST Century Characteristics of Educators as Perceived by Laguna State Polytechnic University Faculty. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(4) 398-410.

Burgess, A., Haq, I., Bleasel, J., Roberts, C., Garsia, R., Randal, N., Mellis, C. (2019). Team-based learning (TBL): A community of practice. BMC Medical Education. 19(1): 369.

Business Bliss Consultants FZE. (2018). Role of Student and Teacher Moderator in Teacher Judgement.

Cajeta, M. S. (2016). Concretizing values at work: Exploring the relation to teaching performance. LAMDAG, 7(1).

Care, E., & Vista, A. (2017). Education assessment in the 21st century: New skillsets for a new millennium. Washington, DC: Brookings. in-the-21st-century-new-skillsets-for-a-new-millennium/

Chao, C. N. G., Wing Sze, W., Chow, E., & Forlin, C. (2017). Improving teachers’ self-efficacy in applying teaching and learning strategies and classroom management to students with special education needs in Hong Kong. Teach. Educ. 66, 360–369.

Coe, R., Aloisi, C., Higgins, S., & Major, L. E. (2014). What makes great teaching? Review of the underpinning research,

Cordingley, P., Higgins, S., Greany, T., Buckler, N., Coles-Jordan, D., Crisp, B., Saunders, L. & Coe, R. (2015). Developing Great Teaching: Lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development. Teacher Development Trust.

Deng Q, Zheng B and Chen J. (2020). The relationship between personality traits, resilience, school support, and creative teaching in Higher School Physical Education Teachers. Front. Psychol.

Dilekli, Y., & Orakci, S. (2019). Analyzing teachers’ reflective thinking in terms of some variables. OPUS–Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 11(18), 1517-1539.

Dogan, O. (2018). The occupational image of teaching according to teachers’ opinions. Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Eskişehir.

Donmus, V., Akpunar, B., & Eroglu, M. (2017). The investigation of the relationship between the academic self-efficacy and occupational anxiety of teacher candidates. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 14(37), 1-13.

Duncan, R., Washburn, I., Lewis, K., Bavarian, N., DuBois, D., & Acock, A. (2016). Can universal SEL programs benefit universally? Effects of the positive action program on multiple trajectories of social-emotional and misconduct behaviors. Prevention Science, 18(2), 214-224.

Elmali, S., & Kiyici, F. (2018). Prospective Science teachers’ tendencies of reflective thinking and views about reflective thinking. Elementary Education Online, 17(3), 1706- 1718.

Engel, M., & Finch, M. A. (2015). Staffing the classroom: How urban principals find teachers and make hiring decisions. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 14, 12– 41.

Fakazlı, O., & Gonen S. I. (2017). Reflection on reflection: EFL university instructors’ perceptions on reflective practices. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 32(3), 708-726.

Fatima, A. (2021). Teacher’s personality traits to create and maintain a classroom.

Farnese, M.L. (2010). The Work Values Questionnaire (WVQ): Revisiting Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) for work contexts. Bollettino Di Psicologia Applicata, 261-262, 59-76

Francis, L. Archer, J. Hodgen, D. Pepper, B. & Taylor, M. (2016). Travers Exploring the relative lack of impact of research on ‘ability grouping’ in England: A discourse analytic account. Cambridge Journal of Education, (pp. 1-17), 10.1080/0305764X.2015.1093095

Gale, T. (2017). What’s Not to like about RCTs in Education? In A. Childs & I. Menter (Eds.), Mobilising Teacher Researchers. London: Routledge. http://

Gershenson, S. (2016). Linking teacher quality, student attendance, and student achievement. Education Finance and Policy, 11, 125– 149.

Gilmore, C., Trundley, R., Bahnmueller, J. & Xenidou-Dervou, I. (2021, September 21). How research findings can be used to inform educational practice and what can go wrong: The Ofsted Mathematics Research Review 2021. Mathematics Teaching, 278.

Glock, S., Krolak-Schwerdt, I.M., & Pit-ten, C. (2015). Are school placement recommendations accurate? The effect of students’ ethnicity on teachers’ judgments and recognition memory. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 30(2), 169-188

Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Weissberg, R. P., & Durlak, J. A. (2017). Social and emotional learning as a public health approach to education. Future of Children, 27(1), 13-32.

Gu, W. G. (2018). Effective strategies for cultivating creative thinking of primary school students in sports teaching. Contemp. Sports Sci. Technol.

Hansen, C. M., & Horn, B. R. (2015). Measuring the dispositions that make teachers effective. Cambridge, MA: Scholars Strategy Network.

Hartlep, N.D. & Porfilio, B.J. (2015). Revitalizing the Field of Educational Foundations and PK-20 Educators’ Commitment to Social Justice and Issues of Equity in an Age of Neoliberalism. Educational Studies, 51(4), 300–316.

Helgetun, J.B. & Menter, I. (2020). From an age of measurement to an evidence era? Policy-making in teacher education in England. Journal of Education Policy.

Hetherington, L. & Wegerif, R. (2018). Developing a material-dialogic approach to pedagogy to guide science teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 44(1), 27–43.

Huang, X. H., Lee, J. C. H., & Yang, X. P. (2019). What really counts? Investigating the effects of creative role identity and self-efficacy on teachers’ attitudes towards the implementation of teaching for creativity. Teach. Teach. Educ. 84, 57–65.

Jones, B. K. (2016). Enduring in an “impossible” occupation: Perfectionism and commitment to teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 67, 437– 446.

Joynes, C., Rossignoli, S., & Amonoo-Kuofi, E. (2019). 21st Century Skills: Evidence of issues in definition, demand and delivery for development contexts (K4D Helpdesk Report). Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.

Kell, H.J. (2019). Do Teachers’ Personality Traits Predict Their Performance? A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Literature From 1990 to 2018.

Kim, L. E., Dar-Nimrod, I., & MacCann, C. (2017). Teacher personality and teacher effectiveness in secondary school: Personality predicts teacher support and student self-efficacy but not academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110, 309– 323.

Kim, H., & Care, E. (2018). Learning progressions: Pathways for 21st century teaching and learning. Washington, DC: Brookings. plus-development/2018/03/27/learning-progressions-pathways-for-21st-century-teaching-and- learning/

Klassen, R. M., Durksen, T. L., Al Hashmi, W., Kim, L. E., Longden, K., Metsäpelto, R. L., & Györi, J. G. (2018). National context and teacher characteristics: Exploring the critical non-cognitive attributes of novice teachers in four countries. Teaching and Teacher Education, 72, 64-74.

Koklukaya, A. N. & Yildirim, E. (2016). Development of anxiety scale for teaching profession and determination of science teacher candidates’ readiness levels. The Journal of International Social Research, 9(43), 1454-1462.

Knight, R. (2020). Classroom Talk: Evidence-Based Teaching for Enquiring Teachers. St Albans: Critical Publishing.

Liu, H., & Chang, C. (2017). Effectiveness of 4Ps creativity teaching for college students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Creat. Educ. 8, 857–869.

Liu, J. Y., Yang, J. P., & Yang, Y. (2015). The relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in Chinese male nurses. Intern. J. Nurs. Sci. 2, 389–393.

Malekshahi, N. (2019). Effects of class observation on the students-teacher interaction in the environment of English language class as a foreign language. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 10(6), 811-823.

Meador, D. (2019). Personality traits that help teachers and students succeed.

Melati, U. (2019). The role of the principal of Madrasa as a supervisor in developing teacher professional competence in Mts. Al Muslimin. Proceeding of International Conference on Islamic Educational Management, 246-253

Mills, K., & Kim, H. (2017). Teaching problem solving: Let students get ‘stuck’ and ‘unstuck’. Washington, DC: Brookings. development/2017/10/31/teaching-problem-solving-let-students-get-stuck-and-unstuck/

Mirzaei, F., Phang, F.A. & Kashefi, H. (2014). Measuring Teachers Reflective Thinking Skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 141 , 640 – 647

Oduntan, F.M. (2022). Teacher effectiveness in managing emergency situations, preparing early childhood teachers for managing emergencies, 52-72.

Olteanu, C. (2017). Reflection-for-action and the choice or design of examples in the teaching of mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29, 349–367.

Papavasileiou, E., Lyons, S., Shaw, G., & Georgiou, A. (2017). Work values in tourism: Past, present and future. Ann. Tour. 64, 150–162.

Parlar, H. & Cansoy, R. (2017). Personal values as a predictor of prospective teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 44, 125-142.

Pugh, A. (2018). Top personality traits for Teachers.

Rasool, G., Mahboob, U., Sajid, M., & Ahmad, S. (2017). Characteristics of effective teaching: a survey on teacher’s perceptions. Pakistan Oral & Dental Journal, 37(1). https://search.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2018). Leaving school early: An examination of novice teachers’ within- and end-of-year turnover. American Educational Research Journal, 56, 204-236.,

Rhodes, S. (2019). Teachers are Learners Too!

Rivas, P. G. (2017). Strategies for teaching and dissemination of artistic heritage by promoting critical and creative thinking among future primary education Teachers. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci. 237, 717–722.

Roberto, J. & Madrigal, D. V. (2019). Teacher Quality in the Light of phil. Professional Standard for Teachers. Philippine Social Science Journal 1(1). 2018

Rogers, P. D. (2014). Beyond grades and scores: Expanding the role of emotional intelligence. Journal of College Admission, 224, 6–10.

Rubenstein, L. D., Ridgley, L. M., Callan, G. L., Karami, S., and Ehlinger, J. (2018). How teachers perceive factors that influence creativity development: applying a social cognitive theory perspective. Teach. Teach. Educ. 70, 100–110.

Samfira, E.M., & Paloş, R., (2021). Teachers’ Personality, Perfectionism, and Self-Efficacy as Predictors for Coping Strategies Based on Personal Resources. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.751930, 12.

Singh, K., & Jha, S. D. (2010). The Positive Personality Traits Questionnaire: Construction and Estimation of Psychometric Properties. Psychological Studies, 55, 248-255.

Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1).

Shepard, L. A. (2019). Classroom Assessment to Support Teaching and Learning. ANNALS, AAPSS, 683, 183-200.

Smith, J., Hoffart, G., & O’Neill, T. (2016). Peer feedback on teamwork behaviors: reactions and intentions to change. American Society for Engineering Education.

Soomro, A. B., Salleh, N., Mendes, E., Grundy, J., Burch, G., and Nordin, A. (2016). The effec t of software engineers’ personality traits on team climate and performance: a systematic literature review. Inform. Softw. Technol. 73, 52–65.

Spies, T.G. & Xu, X. (2018). Scaffolded Academic Conversations: Access to 21st century collaboration and communication skills. Intervention in School and Clinic, 54(1), 22-30.

Suparto, L. (2020). Improving he learning quality of Math teachers through the academic supervision with technique of class observation. International Research- Based Educational Journal, 2(1), 21-24.

Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school-based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta- analysis of follow-up effects. Child Development, 88(4), 1156-1171.

Tedmem (2019). Education evaluation report at a glance. Ankara: Türk Eğitim Derneği.

Thompson, J. (2020). Measuring student success skills: A review of the literature on complex communication

Villasana, M., Alonso-Tapia, J., & Ruiz, M. (2017). Coping processes and personality factors as predictors of resilience in adolescent students: validation of a structural model. Rev. Psicodidáct. 22, 93–101.

Volkova, E.N. (2022). Personal characteristics of a 21st-century teacher: An analysis of empirical studies of the problem. The Education and science journal. 24, (3), 126-157.

Wang, Y. C., Guerola, M. M., Lin, Y. C., Fu, L. S., & Lin, C. H. (2019). Effects of childhood adversity and resilience on Taiwanese youth health behaviors. Pediatr. Neonatol. 60, 368–376.

Wang, Z., Zhang, J., Thomas, C. L., Yu, J., & Spitzmueller, C. (2017). Explaining benefits of employee proactive personality: the role of engagement, team proactivity composition and perceived organizational support. J. Vocat. Behav. 101, 90–103.

Weli, & Bako-Osu, N. (2019). Perceived impact of supervision on classroom management of public senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis, River State. International Journal of Innovative Human Ecology & Nature Studies, 7(4), 59-75.

Whaite, E. O., Shensa, A., Sidani, J. E., Colditz, J. B., & Primack, B. A. (2018). Social media use, personality characteristics, and social isolation among young adults in the United States. Pers. Individ. Differ. 124, 45–50.




How to Cite

S Salinas, S., & Lyndon, A. Q. (2022). The Mediating Effect of Work Values on the Relationship Between Reflective Thinking Skills and Positive Personality Traits Among Public School Elementary School Teachers. American Journal of Education and Technology, 1(3), 30–41.