Philippine Public Senior High School Time Optimization of School Forms Preparation


  • Ritchell Nacional Angelo L. Loyola Senior High School, Department of Education Cavite Province, Carmona Cavite, Philippines.



Information and Communication Technologies, Time optimization, Teaching, Workload, Critical Path Method, Project Evaluation Review Technique


It is well accepted in the Philippines that public school teachers are continually overworked. This study aims to help the classroom advisers in preparing school forms and provides solutions for time optimization to increase productivity. This study developed a system to minimize the time spent on school forms preparation. The time and motion study *were utilized to analyze the process of creating each school form. The Project Evaluation Review (pert) and Critical Path Method (cpm) network analysis answered the number of hours spent to complete the entire process, and identified the critical activities and non-critical activities that could be completed later without delaying the process. This helped establish a standard time for the completion of each school form and detect repetitive activities. It aids operational efficiency by simplifying tasks and developing strategies. The total time initially for completing school forms was 209 hours in a school year. After implementing the PERT/CPM, the total time for completing the school form was reduced to 56.34 hours. This change in the duration of the process of finishing school forms represents a 74. 8% reduction in school forms completion time. However, the study merely reduces the completion of the school forms procedure, which is only one of the reasons for the classroom advisers' overtime work. Innovations contribute to making things easier to do, and this study demonstrates that innovation can reduce the time required to complete school forms.


Download data is not yet available.


Adegoke, A. S. (2011). Measuring Process Effectiveness Using Cpm/Pert. International Journal of Business and Management, 286-295.

Bagshaw, K. B. (2021). PERT and CPM in Project Management with Practical Examples. American Journal of Operations Research, 215-226.

Bikfalvi, A. P. (2007). Complementing education with competence development: an ICT-based. Int. J. Management in Education, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.231–250.

Bon, A. T., & Daim, D. (2010). Time Motion Study in Determination of Time. EnCon2010 3rd Engineering Conference on Advancement in Mechanical. Malaysia.

Bongco, R. T., & Ancho, I. V. (2019). Exploring Filipino teachers’ professional workload. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education, Vol. 9, No. 2, 19-29.

Calp & Akcayol (2018). Optimization of Project Scheduling Activities in Dynamic CPM and PERT Networks Using Genetic Algorithms. Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 615-627.

Cooper Gibson Research. (2018). Exploring teacher workload: qualitative research: Research report. England: Department of Education-England.

David, C. C., Albert, J. R., & Vizmanos, J. F. (2019). Pressures on public school teachers and implications on quality. PIDS Policy Notes.

DepEd. (2014). DepEd Order No. 4, series of 2014:. Adoption of the modified school forms (sfs) for public elementary and secondary schools eeffective end of school year 2013-2014.

Demirel, E. E. & Cephe, P. T. (2015). Looking into burnout levels among English language instructors . Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies , 11 (1) , 1-14 . Retrieved from

Esguerra, D. (2018). DepEd urged to lighten teacher workloads following suicide reports. Retrieved from

Esther, U. (2019). 19 Use of Ict Applications for Secondary Schools Administration. ADECT (Association for Digital Education and Communications Technology) 2019 Proceedings. Nigeria.

Gwambombo, I. (2013). The Effect Of Teachers’ Workload On Students’ Academic Performance In Community Secondary Schools A Study Of Mbeya City. Retrieved from

Horn, M. (2015, June). Change Education To Attack Technology-Driven Unemployment.Forbes. Retrieved from

Jendle, H., & Wallnäs, A. (2017, July 5). Effects of Exercise, Social Support and Hardiness on Occupational Stress in Swedish teachers. Effects of Exercise, Social Support and Hardiness on Occupational Stress in Swedish Teachers;, K. (n.d.). How Effectiveness & Efficiency Relate to Productivity. Retrieved from

Jomuad, et. al, (2021). Teachers’ workload in relation to burnout and work. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review Vol.8 (2), 48-53.

Lermen, et. al, (2016). Optimization of Times and Costs of Project of Horizontal Laminator Production Using Pert/Cpm Technical. Independent Journal of Management & Production (IJM&P), v. 7(3).

Malik, A. R. (2019, October 1). The role of employee attributions in burnout of “talented” employees | Emerald Insight. The Role of Employee Attributions in Burnout of “Talented” Employees | Emerald Insight;

Muhamad, M. R., & Mahmood, W. H. (2005). Productivity Improvement Through Motion and Time Study. Management of Technology and Technology Entrepreneurship (pp. 1-14). Malaysia: Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).

Roch, J. A. (2007). Managing higher education information technology professionals. Int. J. Management in Education, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp.287–297.

Sastry, M. (2007). Development of an academic information system for effective education. Int. J. Management in Education, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.276–286.

Selwood, I., & Pilkington, R. (2005). Teacher workload: using ICT to release. Educational Review, 163-174.

UQ. (2022) What is ICT? What Is ICT?;

Yuniarti, E. A. (2020). Optimizing Production Time in Book Printing using PERT/CPM. 8th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2019) (pp. 102-107). Indonesia: SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda.




How to Cite

Nacional, R. (2022). Philippine Public Senior High School Time Optimization of School Forms Preparation . American Journal of Education and Technology, 1(2), 29–35.