The Fight Against Climate Change: Adaptive and Strategies Activities Among Farmers
Keywords:Adaptive Strategies, Climate Change, Farmers, Cotabato, Philippines
Farmers are the ones who provide food to the people in the society and they are considered to be heroes of today. This study was conducted to determine the challenges experienced by farmers related to climate change, their coping strategies, and different means to ensure crop yield. Qualitative-phenomenology was employed. Findings revealed that farmers experienced failure due to unpredictable weather patterns, bad harvest, slow growth of crops, low quality of fruits, costs them much expenses with loss of capital because of climate change. They cope by employing waterworks and waited for government’s assistance. To ensure crop yield, they applied fertilizers, chemicals, and waterworks.
Ahmad, A. A., Radovich, T. J., Nguyen, H. V., Uyeda, J., Arakaki, A., Cadby, J., ... & Teves, G. (2016). Use of organic fertilizers to enhance soil fertility, plant growth, and yield in a tropical environment. Organic Fertilizers-From Basic Concepts to Applied Outcomes, 85-108.
Albaum, G. (1983). Effectiveness of government export assistance for US smaller‐sized manufacturers: some further evidence. International Marketing Review.
Alcamo, J., Dronin, N., Endejan, M., Golubev, G., & Kirilenko, A. (2007). A new assessment of climate change impacts on foo production shortfalls and water availability in Russia. Global Environmental Change, 17(3-4), 429-444.
Ayeri, O. S., Christian, V. R., Josef, E., & Michael, H. (2012). Local perceptions and responses to climate change and variability: The case of Laikipia District, Kenya. Sustainability, 4(12), 3302-3325.
Baqutayan, S. M., Mohamad, R., Azman, R. R., & Hassan, N. A. (2017). The implementation of contract farming of fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) for smallholders in Malaysia: government roles and initiatives. J Sci Technology & Innovation Policy, 3(1), 1-8.
Chandler, D., Bailey, A. S., Tatchell, G. M., Davidson, G., Greaves, J., & Grant, W. P. (2011). The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1573), 1987-1998.
Collier, B., Skees, J., & Barnett B. (2009). Weather index insurance and climate change: Oppurtunities and challenges in lower income countries. The Geneva Papers on risk insurance- issues and practices.
Condon, A. G., Richards, R. A., Rebetzke, G. J., & Farquhar, G. D. (2002). Improving intrinsic water‐use efficiency and crop yield. Crop Science, 42(1), 122-131.
Defiesta, G. & Rapera, C. (2014). Measuring Adaptive Capacity of Farmers to Climate Change and Variability: Application of a Composite Index to an Agricultural Community in the Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 17(2), 48-62.
Doorenbos, J., & Kassam, A. H. (1979). Yield response to water. Irrigation and drainage paper, 33, 257.
Escarcha, J. F., Lassa, J. A., Palacpac, E. P., & Zander, K. K. (2020). Livelihoods transformation and climate change adaptation: The case of smallholder water buffalo farmers in the Philippines. Environmental Development, 33, 100468.
Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149
Feola, G., Lerner, A. M., Jain, M., Montefrio, M. J. F., & Nicholas, K. A. (2015). Researching farmer behaviour in climate change adaptation and sustainable agriculture: Lessons learned from five case studies. Journal of Rural Studies, 39, 74-84.
Foudi, S., & Erdlenbruch, K. (2011). The role of irrigation in farmers’ risk management strategies in France. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 39(3), 439-457.
Gallagher, S. (2012). What Is phenomenology?. In phenomenology (pp. 7-18). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Gehart, D. R., Ratliff, D. A., & Lyle, R. R. (2001). Qualitative research in famil therapy: A substantive and methodological review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 27(2), 261-274.
Hirpha, H. H., Mpandeli, S., & Bantider, A. (2020). Determinants of adaptation strategies to climate change among the smallholder farmers in Adama District Ethiopia. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management.
Hodges, D. M., & Toivonen, P. M. (2008). Quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables as affected by exposure to abiotic stress. Post-harvest Biology and Technology. 48(2). 155-162.
Howden, S. M., Soussana, J. F., Tubiello, F. N., Chhetri, N., Dunlop, M., & Meinke, H. (2007). Adapting agriculture to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(50), 19691-19696.
Husserl, E., & Gibson, W. R. B. (1983). Ideas: general introduction to pure phenomenology. New York: Collier Books.
Lasco, R. D., Habito, C. M. D., Delfino, R. J. P., Pulhin, F. B., & Concepcion, R. N. (2011). Climate change adaptation for smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia.
Lobell, D. B., & Gourdji, S. M. (2012). The influence of climate change on global crop productivity. Plant Physiology, 160(4), 1686-1697.
Magahud, J. C., & Dimaano, N. G. B. (2015). Extent, methods and determining factors of pesticide application in irrigated rice areas of the Philippines. IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, 15, 168.
McCabe, J. T. (2003). Sustainability and livelihood diversification among the Maasai of northern Tanzania. Human Organization, 62(2), 100-111.
Maeda, K., Okazaki, F., Suenaga, T., Sakurai, T., & Takamatsu, M. (1980). Low back pain related to bowing posture of greenhouse farmers. Journal of human ergology, 9(2), 117-123.
Oliver, M. J., Cushman, J. C., & Koster, K. L. (2010). Dehydration tolerance in plants. In Plant stress tolerance (pp. 3-24). Humana Press.
Pandey, S., Bhandari, H.S., & Hardy B. (2007). Economic costs of drought and rice farmers’ coping mechanism: a cross-country comparative analysis. Int. Rice Res, Inst..
Perez-Lopez, A. J., del Amor, F. M., Servano-Martinez, A., Fortea, M. I., and Nunez Delicado, E. (2017). Influence of Agricultural practices on the quality of sweet pepper fruits as affected by the maturity stage. Journal of the science of Food and Agriculture of the science of Food and Agriculture, 87(11), 2075-2080.
Porter, J. R., & Semenov, M. A. (2005). Crop responses to climatic variation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360(1463), 2021-2035.
Rosegrant, M., Perez, N., Pradesha, A., & Thomas, T. (2015). The Economywide Impacts of Climate Change on Philippine Agriculture. Routledge.
Scialabba, N. E. H., & Müller-Lindenlauf, M. (2010). Organic agriculture and climate change. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 25(2), 158-169.
Simelton, E., Quinn, C. H., AntwiAgyei, P., Batisani, N., Dougill, A. J., Dyer, J., ... & Stringer, L. C. (2011). African farmers’ perceptions of erratic rainfall. Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (No. 73). Working Paper.
Simelton, E., Quinn, C. H., Batisani, N., Dougill, A. S., Dyer, J.C., Fraser, E. D., … & Stringer, L. C. (2013). Is rainfall really changing? Farmer’s perceptions meteorological data, and policy implications. Climate and Development, 5(2), 123-138.
Skees, J. R. (2001). The bad harvest. Regulation, 24, 16.
Solecki, L. (2001). Low back pain among farmers exposed to whole body vibration: a literature review. Medycyna pracy, 62(2),187-202.
Tongco, M. D. C. (2007). Purposive sampling as a tool for informant selection. Ethnobotany Research and applications, 5, 147-158.
Uematsu, H., & Mishra, A. K. (2012). Organic farmers or conventional farmers: Where’s the money?. Ecological Economics, 78, 55-62.
Varadan, R. J., & Kumar, P. (2014). Indigenous knowledge about climate change: Validating the perceptions of dryland farmers in Tamil Nadu.
Waraich, E. A., Ahmad, R., Ashraf, M. Y., Saifullah, & Ahmad, M. (2011). Improving agricultural water use efficiency by nutrient management in crop plants. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B-Soil & Plant Science, 61(4), 291-304.
Wilson, C., & Tisdell, C. (2001). Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental, health and sustainability costs. Ecological economics, 39(3), 449-462.
Yoshida, S. (1981). Fundamentals of rice crop science. Int. Rice Res. Inst..
Yoshida, S., & Parao, F.t. (1976). Climatic influence on yield and yield components of lowland rice in the tropics. Climate and Rice, 20, 471-494.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Ali K Dilangalen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.