Stakeholders’ Challenges in Implementing Printed Modular Instruction to Support Kindergarten Learners


  • Catherine G. Chan Cebu Technological University, Main Campus, Philippines
  • Helen O. Revalde Cebu Technological University, Main Campus, Philippines



Early Childhood Education, Stakeholders’ Challenges, Printed Modular Instruction, Modular Distance Learning, Descriptive Correlational Design, Cebu City, Philippines


This study determined the status and challenges of the printed modular instruction to Kindergarten learners of South District 7, Schools Division of Cebu City. There were 55 purposively selected respondents composed of school heads, teachers, and parents who expressed their perceptions on the challenges encountered in assisting the kindergarten learners enrolled during the pandemic and had of the printed modular instruction as an education delivery approach. The data gathered were organized, tallied, summarized, tabulated, and treated using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that school heads often encountered difficulty in providing help in terms of instruction to the learners providing help in terms of instructing to the learners providing help in terms of instruction to the learners providing help to learners in terms of instruction. Teachers rarely encounter problems, and parents consider the unavailability of mobile phones to contact the teacher as the top challenge. There was no significant relationship between the profile and the profiles of the school head respondents. There was no significant relationship between the profile of the kindergarten teacher respondents. There was a significant relationship between the educational attainment and family income profile of the kindergarten parent respondents. These findings stress the necessity for a broad-based, inclusive educational approach rather than individual solutions. Modular instruction and equal access to quality education for all students require tailored support for varied family circumstances and collaboration with all educational stakeholders of the pupils and improve the delivery of educational services.


Download data is not yet available.


Alipio, M. Ewing, L. A. (2021). Rethinking higher education post COVID-19. The Future of Service Post-COVID-19 Pandemic, Volume 1: Rapid Adoption of Digital Service Technology, 37-54.

An, Y., Kaplan-Rakowski, R., Yang, J., Conan, J., Kinard, W., & Daughrity, L. (2021). Examining K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational technology research and development, 69, 2589-2613.

Azubuike, O. B., Adegboye, O., & Quadri, H. (2021). Who gets to learn in a pandemic? Exploring the digital divide in remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 2, 100022.

Benner, A. D., Boyle, A. E., & Sadler, S. (2016). Parental involvement and adolescents’ educational success: The roles of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45, 1053-1064.

Berryhil, M. B., Morgan, H. G., & Wilson, E. (2020). Impacting Rural Middle Schools Through School-University Partnerships: The Middle School Parent-Teacher Leadership Academy. In Emerging perspectives on community schools and the engaged university (pp. 223-251). IGI Global.

Black, S. A. (2015). Qualities of effective leadership in higher education. Open Journal of Leadership, 4(02), 54.

Bozkurt, A., Jung, I., Xiao, J., Vladimirschi, V., Schuwer, R., Egorov, G., ... & Paskevicius, M. (2020). A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 1-126.

Bragg, S., Renold, E., Ringrose, J., & Jackson, C. (2020). ‘More than boy, girl, male, female’: exploring young people’s views on gender diversity within and beyond school contexts. In Trans Youth in Education (pp. 100-114). Routledge.

Calimlim, J. D., De Guzman, M. F. D., & Villalobos, R. N. (2021). Alternative learning delivery modalities (ALDM) of secondary social studies teachers: Addressing the new normal teaching pedagogies. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 5(6), 90-99.

Day, C., Sammons, P., & Gorgen, K. (2020). Successful School Leadership. Education development trust.

de Klerk, E. D., & Palmer, J. M. (2021). Resetting education priorities during COVID-19: Towards equitable learning opportunities through inclusion and equity. Perspectives in Education, 39(1), 12-28.

Dela Cruz, A. L., C. Camat, I. ., G. Caro, A. G., C. Catahum, M. G. ., C. Jabido, H. R. ., D. Reyes, K. ., P. Florague, A. ., M. Bayog, M. Y. ., & N. Macagba, I. . (2022). Learning Styles and Learning Abilities of Grade 6 Pupils in Dealing with Modular Learning. American Journal of Education and Technology, 1(2), 15–21.

Dunmeyer, S. (2021). Parental involvement and academic achievement in elementary school: A case study (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University).

Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149.

Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). COVID-19 and remote learning: Experiences of parents with children during the pandemic. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(3), 45-65.

Green, C., Mynhier, L., Banfill, J., Edwards, P., Kim, J., & Desjardins, R. (2020). Preparing education for the crises of tomorrow: A framework for adaptability. International Review of Education, 66, 857-879.

Guan, A. G. R., & Benavides, N. G. (2021). Parent-teacher-learner collaboration in facilitating modular instruction. United International Journal for Research & Technology, 2(7), 80-89.

Karal, H., Kokoc, M., Colak, C., & Yalcin, Y. (2015). A case study on online mathematics teaching with pen-based technology: Experiences of two instructors. Contemporary educational technology, 6(4), 319-337.

Knopik, T., Błaszczak, A., Maksymiuk, R., & Oszwa, U. (2021). Parental involvement in remote learning during the COVID‐19 pandemic—Dominant approaches and their diverse implications. European Journal of Education, 56(4), 623-640.

McLeod, S., & Dulsky, S. (2021, March). Resilience, reorientation, and reinvention: School leadership during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. In Frontiers in education (Vol. 6, p. 637075). Frontiers.

Micheli, M. (2015). What is new in the digital divide? Understanding internet use by teenagers from different social backgrounds. In Communication and information technologies annual (pp. 55-87). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Mixon, C. S., Owens, J. S., Hustus, C., Serrano, V. J., & Holdaway, A. S. (2019). Evaluating the impact of online professional development on teachers’ use of a targeted behavioral classroom intervention. School Mental Health, 11, 115-128.

Nasr, N. (2020). Teachers as students. The Electronic Journal for Research in Science & Mathematics Education, 24(2), 168-171.

Pandey, P., & Pandey, M. M. (2021). Research methodology tools and techniques. Bridge Center.

Panunciar, D. M., Bacolod, M. M., Abadiano, M. N., & Deocares, M. S. (2020). Emerging school leadership amidst Covid-19 pandemic. Psychology and Education, 57(9), 5935-5963.

Podolsky, A., Kini, T., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of US research. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 4(4), 286-308.

Posey-Maddox, L., & Haley-Lock, A. (2020). One size does not fit all: Understanding parent engagement in the contexts of work, family, and public schooling. Urban education, 55(5), 671-698.

Potterton, A. U. (2019). Leaders’ experiences in Arizona’s mature education market. Journal of Educational Administration, 57(1), 21-35.

Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 144, 103701.

Santos, E. (2023). Using Mobile-Supported Self-Learning Modules in Developing Oral Communication Skills of Grade 9 ESL Students. American Journal of Education and Technology, 2(2), 99–107.

Schneider, M., & Preckel, F. (2017). Variables associated with achievement in higher education: A systematic review of meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin, 143(6), 565.

Timmons, K., Cooper, A., Bozek, E., & Braund, H. (2021). The impacts of COVID-19 on early childhood education: Capturing the unique challenges associated with remote teaching and learning in K-2. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(5), 887-901.

UNESCO. (2020a). Three ways to plan for equity during the school closures. Retrieved from

Valverde-Berrocoso, J., Fernández-Sánchez, M. R., Revuelta Dominguez, F. I., & Sosa-Díaz, M. J. (2021). The educational integration of digital technologies preCovid-19: Lessons for teacher education. PloS one, 16(8), e0256283.

Zepeda, S. J. (2019). Professional development: What works. Routledge.




How to Cite

Chan, C. G., & Revalde, H. O. (2024). Stakeholders’ Challenges in Implementing Printed Modular Instruction to Support Kindergarten Learners. American Journal of Education and Technology, 3(2), 96–104.