Bacterial Profile of Livestock Farms in South-East Nigeria
Keywords:Bacteria, Cities, Disease, Southeast, Livestock
The unregulated practice of livestock production has endangered the public health sector through the multiplication and spread of bacterial pathogens. This study investigated the bacterial profiles of livestock farms in Aba, Umuahia, Okigwe and Mbaise in the Southeastern part of Nigeria. Air was sampled with passive sedimentation technique; water samples were collected randomly from the farm water sources while hand swabs from the farmers and feeds were collected with sterile swab sticks and containers respectively. Total heterotrophic bacterial count (THBC) was analyzed by pour plate method; total coliform count (TCC) was determined by membrane filter technique while total potential pathogenic bacterial count (TPPBC) was examined by growing the samples in some selective agar media. Of the four cities studied, Aba had the highest THBC (28.43±0.3×105, 26.70±0.7×105, 26.26±0.5×105 CFU/ml), TPPBC (17.47±0.5×105 CFU/ml and 20.02±0.5×105 CFU/ml) and TCC (24.06±0.4×105, 17.93±0.6×105 and 22.36±0.4×105 CFU/ml) for pig, cow and poultry farms respectively while Mbaise had the least value. A total of thirteen (13) bacterial species were isolated in the study but, only Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis were commonly distributed in the four cities. Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated more in Okigwe, Aba and Umuahia respectively than Mbaise. Salmonella sp. (60.00%) had the highest occurrence followed by Staphylococcus aureus (55.33%) while Proteus mirabilis (4.50%) had the lowest occurrence. High bacterial loads were obtained in the study especially in Aba. Livestock farmers should consider proper hygienic measures in order to limit the spread of pathogenic bacteria among surrounding communities.
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