Urbanization and the lost of river activity on Malay human settlement

Authors

  • Julaihi Wahid
  • Azli Abdullah

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54536/ajaset.v5i2.86

Keywords:

River Activity, Human Settlement, Kota Bharu

Abstract

Malaysia, as any other country, is constantly evolving in all facets of life, including architecture, economy, and culture. Despite that, the Malay settlement on the River's fringe remains an early settlement due to the Malays' strong connections to agriculture and socio-culture. The Malay's brilliance in establishing settlements on the river's fringe is among the leading reasons for this community's glorious history in the maritime world. However, today's shift in river activity has eroded the strong bond in Malay settlement. Therefore, affecting the  Malay settlements, which have a significant impact on their economic growth. The research methodology employs previous researchers' exploratory techniques focusing on the effects of urbanization, as well as socioeconomic data from 350 local respondents collected during the field survey in April 2019, and observation analysis information commonly used by architects to evaluate the context of the discussion. These include physical, social, cultural, and public amenities, and the data gathered then was amalgamated using IBM SPSS V26, supplemented by interview techniques and pictorial documentation. Mapping techniques are being used to generate existing settlements patterns by utilizing the Google Earth software. Finally, AutoCAD 2018 software is used to demonstrate the current settlement pattern in the case study situation. According to the results of the study, the pace of urbanization is speeding up and creeping into the Malay settlements. The destruction of river activities in order to change Malay settlement patterns and force them to follow or reject the current trend of urbanization.

Author Biographies

Julaihi Wahid

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, UNIMAS
Sarawak, Malaysia

Azli Abdullah

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Ekistics, UMK
Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia

References

Adji Syahputra, B. (2018). Socio- economics of the Integrated Rice-fish Farmer System in Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research (ICMR 2018). ISBN: 978-989-758-437-4. SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. DOI: 10.5220/0008882701120117

Alam, K. (2021). The Role of River Transport for School Access. KnE Social Sciences, 5(1), 386–395. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v5i1.8301.

Alexander, B., L., (1987). Human Settlements: The Second Definition. Vol. 54, No. 325/326/327. The Year 2000 and Beyond: An Agenda of Priority Issues - III, IV and V (July, August–Sept./Oct.–Nov./Dec. 1987). Athens Center of Ekistics. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43623005. Pp. 243-248

Andaya, B., W., & Andaya, L., Y., (1982). A History of Malaysia. ISBN: 978-0-333-27673-0. MacMillan. London

Awang Besar, J., et.al. (2012). An Impact of Housing Development to Urban Geopolitic. Akademika 82 (3) 2012; 49-60.

Bromley, R. (2003). Towards Global Human Settlements: Constantinos Doxiadis as Entrepreuner, Coalition-Builder and Visionary. Joe Nasr & Mercedes Volait, eds. Urbanism Imported or Exported? Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 316-340.

Brian J. L. B., & Chauncy, D. (1970). Walter Christaller: An Appreciation. Harris Source: Geographical Review,Vol. 60, No. 1. American Geographical Society Stable. Pp. 116-119.

Choomgrant, K., & Sukharomana, R. (2017). A Vibrant Life by the Chao Phraya River, Northern Bangkok Thailand: The Heritage Tourism Value of Baan Lao Community. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research (AEBMR), Volume 26. International Conference on Economics, Finance and Statistics (ICEFS 2017).

Christaller, C. (1966). Central' Place’s in Southern Germany. (Trans. By C.W. Baskin from the German Original of 1933, Die Zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland). Prentice Hall, Englewood-Cliffs.

Doxiadis, C., A. (1974). The Twelve Radical Changes Needed for Action for Human Settlements. Vol. 38, No. 229, Action for Human Settlements: Delos Eleven—Cumulatife Index to "EKISTICS": Vols. 30-38, July 1970 - Dec. 1974 (December 1974). Athens Center of Ekistics. Pp. 390-393.

Doxiadis, C. A., (1962). Ekistics. Journal Article Ekistics and Regional Science. Vol. 14, No. 84. Athens Center of Ekistics, https://www.jstor.org/stable/43620937. Pp. 193-200.

Doxiadis, C. A., (1972). Discussions on Ekistics: Man, Shells, Society, Network. Summary of the Athens Ekistics Months 1963-1971. Vol. 33, No. 197. Athens Center of Ekistics, https://www.jstor.org/stable/43621696. Pp. 237-247.

Doxiadis, C., A. (2005). Towards an Ekistic Theory. Ekistics. Vol. 72, No. 430/435, A Reader on Ekistics, Thirty Years After C.A. Doxiadis. Athens Center of Ekistics. Pp. 39-66.

Mohd Faiz, M., A. (2019). The Soul of Tin. Museum Volunteers, JMM Taking the Mystery Out of History. Pp 1-10.

Evers, H. D., & Hornidge, A. K. (2007). Knowledge hubs along the Straits of Malacca. Asia Europe Journal, 5(3), 417–433. doi:10.1007/s10308-007-0127-1

Evers, H., D., (2017). (Translated by Abdul Muein Abadi) Nusantara: Malaysia dan Geopolitik Laut China Selatan. ISBN 9674124578. UKM Press. Malaysia

Evers, H., D., (2013). Urban Property Development in Malaysia: The Impact of Chinese and Malay Conceptions of Space, From the Selected Works of Hans-Dieter Evers. University of Bonn. DOI: 10.1142/97898144524270016. Pp-10.

Evers, H., D., (2016). The Vanishing Culture of Malaysian Urbanization. UKM. Malaysia. Pp-8.

Fahimudin, M., Z. (2020). Perak As Trade Center in The Malay World Until The 19th Century. Vol. 17. No.8 (2020). ISSN: 1823-884x. E-Bangi, Journal of Science and Humanity Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Pp. 246-261.

Farizkha, A., et.al. (2019). Understanding the Characteristics of “Ekistics” Elements in Determining Factors of Urban Settlement Growth. Urban and Regional Planning Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jember, Indonesia, The 4th International Conference in Planning in the 2019 Era of Uncertainty, OP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science328 (2019) 012065. Pp 1-3.

Fookes, T. W. (2000). Ekistics: An Example of Innovation in Human Settlements Planning. Vol. 54, No. 325/326/327, The Year 2000 and Beyond: An Agenda of priority issues - III, IV and V (July, August–Sept./Oct.–Nov./Dec. 1987). Athens Center of Ekistics. pp. 218-227 (10 pages). https://www.jstor.org/stable/43623002, EKISTICS Journal.

Gottmann, J., (1976). The Ekistic Philosophy of C.A. Doxiadis: A Personal Appreciation. Vol. 41, No. 247, C.A. Doxiadis 1913-75: Pursuit of an Attainable Ideal. Athens Center of Ekistic. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43619842. Pp. 383-385

Hartanto, T., & Rully. (2020). Hilangnya Sinergitas Masyarakat Dengan Sungai Dalam Tata Ruang Permukiman Bantaran Sumber di Surakarta. Jurnal Teknik Sipil Dan Arsitektur Vol.25 No. 1 Juli 2020 ISSN: 2598-2257(2301-668X Print).

Heywood, P., R., (1969). Plangloss: A Critique of Permissive Planning. The Town Planning Review. Vol. 40, No. 3 (Oct. 1969). Liverpool University Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40102850. Pp. 251-262.

Hudson-Rodd, N., & Shaw, B., J., (2003). Mekong River Development. Water International, 28(2), 268–275. Routledge Informa Ltd. London. PP- 269.

Ibrahim, A., Z., et.al., (2018). The Level of Livelihood Assets Ownership Among Vulnerability Group in East Coast of Malaysia. European Journal of Sustainable Development. 7, 3, 157-161. ISSN: 2239-5938. Doi: 10.14207/ejsd.2018.v7n3p157.

Ismail, N. S., & Hasan, W. N. W. (2018). Food Reserve and Sustainable Development in Malaysia from Islamic Perspectives. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(5), 1125–1137. Vol.8, No. 5, May 2018. Pp. 1125-1137.

Isa, M., H. & Samsudin, M. (2020). The Development of Telegraph System in Perak,1876-1900. Malaysia and International History Review-ISSN: 2682-8839. Vol. 2, No. 2(2020). Pp. 15-34.

Idrus, S. et al. (2011). Spatial Transformations and Housing Livability in Seremban, Malaysia. Akademika 81(3) 2011. Pp. 83-93.

Kiroh, F. & De Silva, M. (2018). Program Pembinaan Jalanraya Humphreys, 1928-1936. Jurnal Borneo Arkhailogia (Heritage, Archaeology and History). Vol. 3(2), Disember, 2018. e-ISSN: 2600-8726. UMS Press. Malaysia. Pp. 1-12.

Kuentzel, W. F., & McDonald, C. D. (1992). Differential Effects of Past Experience, Commitment, and Lifestyle Dimensions on River Use Specialization. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(3), 269–287. doi:10.1080/00222216.1992.11969893

Lamb, V. (2018). Who Knows the River? Gender, Expertise, and the Politics of Local Ecological Knowledge Production of the Salween River, Thai-Myanmar Border. Gender, Place & Culture, 1–16. doi:10.1080/0966369x.2018.1481018.

Leakey, R., & Leawin, R., (1979). People of the Lake: Man, His Origin, Nature and Future. Collins; London.

Loucks, D. (2019). Developed River Deltas: Are They Sustainable? https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab4165

Matisoo-Smith, E. (2015). Ancient DNA and the Human Settlement of the Pacific: A Review. Journal of Human Evolution, 79, 93–104. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.10.017

Ma, R. et.al., (2016). Overview and Progress of Chinese Geographical Human Settlement Research. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(8), 1159–1175. doi:10.1007/s11442-016-1320-1. www.geogsci.com. www.springerlink.com/content/1009-637

McGee, T.G., (1975). The Urbanization Process in the Third World: Explorations in Search of a Theory. G. Bell and Sons LTD. York House, Portugal Street London.

Mentayani, I. (2019). Identity and Existence Riverside Settlement of Banjarmasin. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Lingkungan Lahan Basah. e-ISSN 2623-1980. Volume 4 Nomor 3 Halaman 497-502 April 2019. ISBN 0-203-98113-8 Master e-book ISBN.

Mitarachi, E., (1974). Population and Human Settlements. Vol. 37, No. 221. Athens Center of Ekistics. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43618311. Pp. 301-304

Middleton, D., A., (2009). Growth and Expansion in Post-War Urban Design Strategies:C. A. Doxiadis and the First Strategic Plan for Riyadh Saudi Arabia (1968-1972). Georgia Institute of Technology December 2009. PhD Thesis.

Mumford, L., (1946). City Development Studies in Disintegration and Renewal. ISBN 9780837168906. Greenwood Press. London.

Mossop, E. (2018). Sustainable Coastal Design and Planning. ISBN 9781498774543. Taylor & Francis. New York

Mohamad, S., Toriman, M., E., Aiyub, K., & Jaafar, M., (2005). Sungai dan Pembangunan Tebing Sungai Bandar Malaysia. ISBN 9789679427424 UKM Press. Malaysia.

Mohajan, H., K. (2019). The First Industrial Revolution: Creation of a New Global Human Era. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 5, No. 4. Pp. 377-387.

Papaioannou, J., G. (2005). C.A. Doxiadis' Early Career and the Birth of Ekistics. Vol. 72, No. 430/435, A Reader on Ekistics, Thirty Years After C.A. Doxiadis. Athens Center of Ekistics. Pp. 13-17.

Panin, O., (1999). The Central Region Thai Vernacular Houses. Proceeding of the International Conference on Conservation and Revitalization of Vernacular Architecture and ICOMOS-CIAV Annual Meeting 1998. Bangkok, Thailand: ICOMOS-CIAV. Pp. 38–58.

Pula, J. S. (2021). Civil War Logistics: A Study of Military Transportation. Journal of Political & Military Sociology, vol. 46, no. 1, 2019. Pp. 267

Saleh, M.I. (1983). Sekilas Mengenai Daerah Banjar dan Kebudayaan Sungainya Sampai Akhir Abad IX, Proyek Pengembangan Permuseuman Kalimantan Selatan Depdikbud. Banjarmasin1983/1984.

Seamon, D., (2018). 1st Edition Life Takes Place Phenomenology, Lifeworlds, and Place Making. ISBN 9780815380719. Routledge. New York.

Sendut, H., (1962). Patterns of Urbanization in Malaya. The Journal of Tropical Geograph 16. Pp. 114-130

Silva, C., N., (2019). Routledge Handbook of Urban Planning in Africa. Routledge, New York. ISBN 978-1-351-27184-4 (ebk).

Sirakov, N., et.al. (2010). An Ancient Continuous Human Presence in the Balkans and the Beginnings of Human Settlement in Western Eurasia: A Lower Pleistocene Example of the Lower Palaeolithic Levels in Kozarnika Cave (North-western Bulgaria). Quaternary International. Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2010.02.02.

Shari, I. (1992). Pembangunan dan Kemunduran: Perubahan Ekonomi Luar Bandar di Kelantan. ISBN 983-62-0470-9. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Kuala Lumpur.

Thaitakoo, D., & McGrath, B., (2008). Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Changing Landscape, Changing climate: Bangkok and the Chao Phraya River Delta. Places, 20(2). Pp. 30–35.

Vadillo, V., W., & Kallio, M. (2020). Historical Ecology of the Mekong in a Set of 5 Diachronic Maps.. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3827019.

Wichiencharoen, A., (1993). The Environment and Culture of Thailand. Proceeding of the Symposium on Environment and Culture with Emphasis on Urban Issues Bangkok. Thailand: Siam Society. Pp. 5–23.

Wicaksono, B. (2018). Perubahan Budaya Bermukim Masyarakat Riparian Sungai Musi Palembang, Tinjauan Proses dan Produk. Jurnal Tekno Global Volume 7 No 2 Disember 20. ISSN Online: 2502-2024.

Wahid, J. (1996). Physical Change and Their Relationship to The Socio-Cultural Factors In Urban Design: The Case Of Petrajaya, Kuching, Sarawak, PhD Thesis University Of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Wahid, J., & Harman Shah,A.H., (1991). Community Design of Coasal Communities in Kuching, Sarawak. Sarawak Meseum Journal XLII (63). Pp. 251-266.

Wahid, J. (2014). Urbanisasi dan Perumahan di Malaysia. (Siri Perlantikan Professor 2011/ bil.5). Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. Malaysia.

Wu, L., (2001). Introduction to Science of Human Settlements. Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press.

Wohl, E., Lane, S. N., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015). The Science and Practice of River Restoration. Water Resources Research, 51(8), 5974–5997. doi:10.1002/2014wr016874.

Zanuri, N., B., M. ,et.al. (2020). Case Study of Marine Pollution in Teluk Bahang, Penang, Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 414, The World Seafood Congress 2019 – "Seafood Supply Chains of the Future: Innovation, Responsibility, Sustainability" 9–11 September 2019, Penang, Malaysia.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-29

How to Cite

Wahid, J., & Abdullah, A. (2021). Urbanization and the lost of river activity on Malay human settlement. American Journal of Agricultural Science, Engineering and Technology, 5(2), 148–168. https://doi.org/10.54536/ajaset.v5i2.86