Assessment of the Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Agricultural Extension Service Delivery among Farmers in Yobe State, Nigeria


  • Nuruddeen Mohammed Department of Agribusiness and Extension Management, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology Gujba, Nigeria



Agriculture, Extension, Farmers, ICT, Use


The study assessed the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in agricultural extension services delivery among farmers in Yobe state, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the ICTs available to the farmers in the study area, ascertain the level of access to ICTs among the farmers in the study area and identify, determine the use of ICTs among the farmers in the study area, constraints to the use of ICTs among the farmers in the study area. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 130 respondents for the study. The target populations were obtained from the sampling frame of all contact farmers in the state Agricultural Zones. Both Primary and secondary data were used in the study. Primary data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule, while secondary data were obtained from records of YOSADP, articles, and publications. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, mean, and Likert scale. The analysis results revealed that mobile phones, radio, internet, and television were the most available and accessible ICT tools used by the sampled respondents in the study area. The severity of the constraints to the use of ICT facilities among the respondents shows lack of electricity supply as the 1st ranked impediment among others (WMS of 3.6), followed by lack of funds and high illiteracy level (WMS of 3.2) each and inadequate access to ICT gadgets (WMS of 3.1). In conclusion, there was low usage of ICT facilities in the study area, and the respondents had low knowledge of useful information, as imposed by some constraining factors. Overcoming these challenges would ensure increased use of ICTs for agricultural activities in the study area. Recommendations such as awareness/sensitization on the use of ICT facilities such as the internet and computer to enable farmers utilize the tools effectively for agricultural information transfer and retrieval, dissemination of agricultural-related information through radio and television programs, as well as mobile phones, would be recommended for agricultural development, the use of renewable energy such as solar panels in the utilization of ICT tools particularly in rural areas and enactment of new government policy for the incorporation of ICT gadgets in extension services delivery to farmers to increase their confidence, competence and skills in using ICTs.


Agwu, A. E. & Chah, J. N. (2007). Access and Utilization of Modern Information Communication Technologies among Extension Personnel in Benue State of Nigeria. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria (AESON), Maiduguri 4th-7th July, p. 7-21.

Agwu, A. E., Uche-Mba, U. C. & Akinnagbe, O. M. (2008). Use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT’s) among Researchers, Extension Workers and Farmers in Abia and Enugu States: Implications for a National Agricultural Extension Policy on ICT’s. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 12(1), 37-49.

Aker, J. C. (2010). Dial “A” for Agriculture using ICTs for Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries. Tufts University. A Paper Presented at the Conference on Agriculture and Development, University of Califonia, Berkely, p. 160-172.

Akinnagbe, O. M & Oladipupo, G. T. (2018). Attitudes of Arable Crop Farmers towards the Use of Information Communication Technologies in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, 4(9), 182-189.

Akweta, J. N., Tata, L. A. & James, A. N. (2018). Information Needs of Farmers in Song Local Government area, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Food security and Sustainable environment, 1(1), 11-16.

Albert, C. O. (2014). Constraints to Effective Use of ICT’s among Extension Professionals and Farmers in Extension Service Delivery in Rivers State, Nigeria. Singaporean Journal of Business, Economics, and Management Studies, 2(11), 136-142.

Ansari, M. A. & Pandey, N. (2013). Assessing the Potential and Use of Mobile Phones in Agriculture. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26(3), 388-392.

Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CTA) (2003). ICTs Transforming Agricultural Extension: An e-discussion, 20th August-29th September 2003.

Cherry, K. (2014). Theories of Motivation, Psychology.

Davis, F. D., Bogozzi, R. P. & Warshaw, P.R. (1989). User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of two Theoretical Models. Management Science, 35(1), 982-1003.

Durojaiye, L. O., Abubakar, S. Z., Omeneza, Z. E., Muhammed, S., Wahab, A. A., Ismail, F.O. & Musa, R. A. (2013). An ICT-Based Agricultural Extension Service Delivery for Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 17(2), 16-22.

Farell, C. O. (2003). Virtual Extension-Research Communication Network (VERCON). Proceedings of the ICTs Observatory Meeting, 23rd -25th September, 2003. Wageningen, the Netherlands, 9, 27-39.

Ferder, G., Just, R. E. & Zilberman, D. (1985). Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 33(2), 255-298.

Google Map, (2018): GIS, Department of Geography, University of Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria.

IICD, (2007). How ICT can make a Difference in Agricultural Livelihood. The Common Wealth Ministers Reference Book-2007.

Kim, Y. & Crowston, K. (2011). Technology Adoption and Use Theory Review for Studying Scientists Continued Use of Cyber-infrastructure. Available at:

Li, L. (2010). A Critical Review of Technology Acceptance Literature. Southwest Decision Sciences Institute. Available at:

Madukwe, M. C. (2006). Delivery of Agricultural Extension Services to Farmers in Developing Countries. Markets in Niger state, Nigeria. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(3), 46-59.

Meera, S. N., Jhamtani, A. & Rao, D. U. M (2004). Information and Communication Technology in Agricultural Development: A Comparative Analysis of Three Projects from India. Agricultural Research and Extension Network paper No. 135, p. 20.

National Population Commission (NPC) (2006). A Blueprint on Official Population of Yobe State, Nigeria.

Ndaghu, A. A. (2012). Use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) among Women Farmers in Northeastern Nigeria. An Unpublished Thesis in the Department of Agricultural Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, p. 131-183.

Nguthi, F. (2007). Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in the Context of HIV/AIDS: Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in the Context of HIV/AIDS: The Case of the Tissue-Cultured Banana in Central Kenya. Ph.D. Thesis, Wagenigen University.

Nwachukwu, I. (2010). Communication for development: Concept, principles and practice. In Proceedings of the South-east Zonal Workshop on effective Extension Communication Methods and Techniques for Agricultural Staff/Personnel from ADPs, LGAs, RBDAs, NARIs, Polytechnics and NGOs, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria (pp. 14-20).

Ogbonna, O. I. & Agwu, A. E. (2013). Access and Use of Information and Communication Technologies by Rural Farmers in Enugu North Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(7), 264-270.

Okello, J., Juma, J., Okello, R. M., & Adera, O. E. (2010). Awareness and the use of mobile phones for market linkage by smallholder farmers in Kenya. In B. M. Maumbe (Ed.), e-Agriculture and e-Government for Global Policy Development: Implications and Future Direction (pp. 1-18). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations, (4th ed.). New York, Free Press.

Saravanan, R. (Ed.). (2010). India. In R. Saravanan (Ed.), ICTs for agricultural extension: Global experiment, innovations and experiences (2nd ed., pp. 115-168). New Delhi, India: New India Publishing Agency.

Syiem, R. & Raj, S. (2015). Access and Usage of ICTs for Agriculture and Rural Development by the tribal farmers in Meghalaya state of North-east India. Journal of Agricultural Informatics, 6(3), 24-41.

UNDP (2001). Information Communications Technology for Development. Essentials ICTD 31. Synthesis of Lessons Learned. Evaluation Office No. 5 September. New York.

UNESCO (2002). ICT’s in Teacher Education: A Planning Guide. Division of Higher Education, UNESCO, 2, p. 9.

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, (2nd ed.). New York, Harper and Row.




How to Cite

Mohammed, N. (2024). Assessment of the Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Agricultural Extension Service Delivery among Farmers in Yobe State, Nigeria. International Journal of Smart Agriculture, 2(1), 11–19.