The Impact of Drug Pricing and Insurance Coverage on Medication Adherence in Saudi
Keywords:Medical Adherence, Drug Pricing, Insurance Coverage, Medical Insurance, Medicine Cost
This study explores the complex interactions in Saudi Arabia between medicine costs, insurance coverage, and medication adherence. 250 individuals’ data were analysed, and significant relationships were found. With a significant coefficient of -0.773 (p = 0.006), high medicine prices were shown to be a significant barrier to medication adherence. On the other hand, complete insurance protection showed a favorable connection with adherence, highlighting its crucial function. The fact that 69% of the participants had health coverage and 31% did not highlights a sizable insurance gap. Males comprised 80% of the sample, 62% of respondents were in the 29–39 age range, and 56% had bachelor’s degrees. The income range showed that 43% made more than 20,000 SAR monthly. The significant effects of medicine cost and insurance coverage on medication adherence were highlighted by regression analysis (Beta = -0.749, p = 0.001, and 0.759, p = 0.006, respectively). These results highlight the criticality of addressing the affordability of prescription costs and advocating for open insurance programmes to improve healthcare outcomes in Saudi Arabia. Prioritising actions can help reduce costs and provide comprehensive coverage, say policymakers. This study emphasises the need for more research to dive further into the intricacies of healthcare accessibility, particularly in a healthcare environment that is continually expanding.
Adebisi, Y. A., Nwogu, I. B., Alaran, A. J., Badmos, A. O., Bamgboye, A. O., Rufai, B. O., Okonji, O. C., Malik, M. O., Teibo, J. O., & Abdalla, S. F. (2022). Revisiting the issue of access to medicines in Africa: challenges and recommendations. Public Health Challenges, 1(2), e9.
Ahmad, N. S., Makmor-Bakry, M., & Hatah, E. (2020). Drug price transparency initiative: A scoping review. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 16(10), 1359-1369.
Ahmed, I., Ahmad, N. S., Ali, S., Ali, S., George, A., Danish, H. S., Uppal, E., Soo, J., Mobasheri, M. H., & King, D. (2018). Medication adherence apps: review and content analysis. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 6(3), e6432.
Al-Hanawi, M. K., & Keetile, M. (2021). Socio-economic and demographic correlates of non-communicable disease risk factors among adults in Saudi Arabia. Frontiers in Medicine, 8, 605912.
Al Jeraisy, M., Alshammari, H., Albassam, M., Al Aamer, K., & Abolfotouh, M. A. (2023). Utility of patient information leaflet and perceived impact of its use on medication adherence. BMC Public Health, 23(1), 488.
Albugmi, M. A. (2021). The Effects of the Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on the Use of Health Services among Noncitizen Employees in the Private Sector in Saudi Arabia. Kent State University.
Almutairi, A. R., Al-Samil, A. M., Alsayyari, A., Yousef, C. C., Khan, M. A., Alhamdan, H. S., & Al-Jedai, A. (2023). The landscape of biosimilars in Saudi Arabia: preparing for the next decade. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 1-10.
AlQarni, K., AlQarni, E. A., Naqvi, A. A., AlShayban, D. M., Ghori, S. A., Haseeb, A., Raafat, M., & Jamshed, S. (2019). Assessment of medication adherence in Saudi patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in Khobar City, Saudi Arabia. Frontiers in pharmacology, 10, 1306.
Anderson, T. S., Marcantonio, E. R., McCarthy, E. P., & Herzig, S. J. (2020). National trends in potentially preventable hospitalizations of older adults with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(10), 2240-2248.
Aramco, S. ( 2023). Aramco announces first quarter 2023 results Q1 net income remains robust and growth strategy on track as Downstream expansion progresses.
Baker, M. R., Padmaja, D. L., Puviarasi, R., Mann, S., Panduro-Ramirez, J., Tiwari, M., & Samori, I. A. (2022). Implementing critical machine learning (ML) approaches for generating robust discriminative neuroimaging representations using structural equation model (SEM). Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, 2022.
Bali, A. S., & Ramesh, M. (2023). Knowledge–practice gap in healthcare payments: the role of policy capacity. Policy and Society, puad019.
Brown, M. T., Bussell, J., Dutta, S., Davis, K., Strong, S., & Mathew, S. (2016). Medication adherence: truth and consequences. The American journal of the medical sciences, 351(4), 387-399.
Bujang, M. A., Omar, E. D., & Baharum, N. A. (2018). A review on sample size determination for Cronbach’s alpha test: a simple guide for researchers. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 25(6), 85.
Cairney, P., & Oliver, K. (2017). Evidence-based policymaking is not like evidence-based medicine, so how far should you go to bridge the divide between evidence and policy? Health research policy and systems, 15(1), 1-11.
Creswell, J. W., & Hirose, M. (2019). Mixed methods and survey research in family medicine and community health. Family medicine and community health, 7(2).
Dias, R. (2023). Comparing the Catastrophic Health Expenditures on Different Non-Communicable Diseases Among Households in Goa, India. Millennial Asia.
Ding, A., Dixon, S. W., Ferries, E. A., & Shrank, W. H. (2022). The role of integrated medical and prescription drug plans in addressing racial and ethnic disparities in medication adherence. Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, 28(3), 379-386.
Emadi, F., Ghanbarzadegan, A., Ghahramani, S., Bastani, P., & Baysari, M. T. (2022). Factors affecting medication adherence among older adults using tele-pharmacy services: a scoping review. Archives of Public Health, 80(1), 199.
Frieden, T. R., Varghese, C. V., Kishore, S. P., Campbell, N. R., Moran, A. E., Padwal, R., & Jaffe2, M. G. (2019). Scaling up effective treatment of hypertension-a pathfinder for universal health coverage. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 21(10), 1442-1449.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2019). IBM SPSS statistics 26 step by step: A simple guide and reference. Routledge.
Godman, B., Hill, A., Simoens, S., Selke, G., Selke Krulichová, I., Zampirolli Dias, C., Martin, A. P., Oortwijn, W., Timoney, A., & Gustafsson, L. L. (2021). Potential approaches for the pricing of cancer medicines across Europe to enhance the sustainability of healthcare systems and the implications. Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research, 21(4), 527-540.
González Vera, M. d. l. A., Valcárcel Cabrera, M. d. C., Narbona, J. L., Sánchez-Cantalejo Garrido, M. d. C., Vaquero Prada, J. P., & Olry de Labry Lima, A. (2022). Effect of an intervention New Medicine Service to improve adherence in the Spanish community pharmacies: a protocol of a pragmatic randomised trial.
Graffelman, J., & De Leeuw, J. (2023). Improved approximation and visualization of the correlation matrix. The American Statistician, 1-11.
Kennedy-Martin, T., Boye, K. S., & Peng, X. (2017). Cost of medication adherence and persistence in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a literature review. Patient preference and adherence, 1103-1117.
Knapp, M., & Wong, G. (2020). Economics and mental health: the current scenario. World Psychiatry, 19(1), 3-14.
Lee, K. S., Kassab, Y. W., Taha, N. A., & Zainal, Z. A. (2020). Factors impacting pharmaceutical prices and affordability: narrative review. Pharmacy, 9(1), 1.
Li, M., Liu, Z., Zhang, M., & Chen, Y. (2021). A workflow for spatio-seasonal hydro-chemical analysis using multivariate statistical techniques. Water Research, 188, 116550.
Malecha, P. W., Williams, J. H., Kunzler, N. M., Goldfrank, L. R., Alter, H. J., & Doran, K. M. (2018). Material needs of emergency department patients: a systematic review. Academic Emergency Medicine, 25(3), 330-359.
Manna, R., Cavallone, M., Ciasullo, M. V., & Palumbo, R. (2020). Beyond the rhetoric of health tourism: shedding light on the reality of health tourism in Italy. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(14), 1805-1819.
Meng, Q., Fang, H., Liu, X., Yuan, B., & Xu, J. (2015). Consolidating the social health insurance schemes in China: towards an equitable and efficient health system. The Lancet, 386(10002), 1484-1492.
Ministry of Health, R., & Saudi Arabia. (2017). Ministry of Health. Health statistical year book 2016, Department of Statistics, .
Mohiuddin, A. K. (2019). Risks and reasons associated with medication non-adherence. J Clin Pharm, 1(1), 50-53.
Mooi, E., Sarstedt, M., & Mooi-Reci, I. (2018). Market research: The process, data, and methods using Stata. Springer.
Morrissey, E. C., Corbett, T. K., Walsh, J. C., & Molloy, G. J. (2016). Behavior change techniques in apps for medication adherence: a content analysis. American journal of preventive medicine, 50(5), e143-e146.
Patel, M. R., Press, V. G., Gerald, L. B., Barnes, T., Blake, K., Brown, L. K., Costello, R. W., Crim, C., Forshag, M., & Gershon, A. S. (2018). Improving the affordability of prescription medications for people with chronic respiratory disease. an official American Thoracic Society policy statement. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 198(11), 1367-1374.
Reed, M. E., Warton, E. M., Kim, E., Solomon, M. D., & Karter, A. J. (2017). Value-based insurance design benefit offsets reductions in medication adherence associated with switch to deductible plan. Health Affairs, 36(3), 516-523.
Reynolds, E. L., Burke, J. F., Banerjee, M., Kerber, K. A., Skolarus, L. E., Magliocco, B., Esper, G. J., & Callaghan, B. C. (2020). Association of out-of-pocket costs on adherence to common neurologic medications. Neurology, 94(13), e1415-e1426.
Schlander, M., Hernandez-Villafuerte, K., Cheng, C.-Y., Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., & Baumann, M. (2021). How much does it cost to research and develop a new drug? A systematic review and assessment. PharmacoEconomics, 39, 1243-1269.
Smith, G. L., Lopez-Olivo, M. A., Advani, P. G., Ning, M. S., Geng, Y., Giordano, S. H., & Volk, R. J. (2019). Financial burdens of cancer treatment: a systematic review of risk factors and outcomes. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 17(10), 1184-1192.
Stecker, E. C., Ayanian, J. Z., & Fendrick, A. M. (2015). Value-based insurance design: aligning incentives to improve cardiovascular care. Circulation, 132(16), 1580-1585.
Torres-Robles, A., Benrimoj, S. I., Gastelurrutia, M. A., Martinez-Martinez, F., Peiro, T., Perez-Escamilla, B., Rogers, K., Valverde-Merino, I., Varas-Doval, R., & Garcia-Cardenas, V. (2022). Effectiveness of a medication adherence management intervention in a community pharmacy setting: a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ Quality & Safety, 31(2), 105-115.
Wong, W. B., Seetasith, A., Hung, A., & Zullig, L. L. (2023). Impact of list price changes on out-of-pocket costs and adherence in four high-rebate specialty drugs. PloS one, 18(1), e0280570.
Yang, E. J., Galan, E., Thombley, R., Lin, A., Seo, J., Tseng, C.-W., Resneck, J. S., Bach, P. B., & Dudley, R. A. (2020). Changes in Drug List Prices and Amounts Paid by Patients and Insurers. JAMA Network Open, 3(12), e2028510-e2028510. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.28510
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Turki M. Alsagoor
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.